Criminalistics Chapter 1-6 Review

Topics: Forensic evidence, Crime scene, Forensic entomology Pages: 11 (4256 words) Published: October 19, 2012
1. The physical science unit applies principles and techniques of chemistry, physics, and geology to the identification and comparison of crime scene evidence. 2. The wide variation in which services are offered in different crime laboratories is due to variations in local laws and budgetary and staffing limitations only. 3. The tendency of the public to believe that every crime scene will yield forensic science evidence and their unrealistic expectations that a prosecutor’s case should always be bolstered and supported by forensic evidence is known as the CSI effect. 4. The final evaluator of forensic evidence is the jury.

5. In the case of Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceutical, Inc., the U.S. Supreme Court advocated that a “gatekeeper” determine the admissibility and reliability of scientific evidence. This gatekeeper is the trial judge. 6. Who established the first workable crime laboratory? Locard. 7. Who wrote the first treatise describing the application of science to the field of criminal investigation? Gross. 8. The ten sections of the American Academy of Forensic Science include all of the following EXCEPT: Arson/Explosives. 9. Which of the following can be rightfully cited as an explanation for the rapid growth of crime labs during the last 25 years? All of these. 10. Forensic science is the application of science to: both criminal and civil laws. 11. Approximately how many operating crime labs are there in the United States (federal, state, and country)? 300+. 12. Which specialized area of forensic science examines the relationship between human behavior and legal proceedings? Forensic psychiatry. 13. Forensic odontology refers to the study of: teeth.

14. Who is known as the “father of forensic toxicology”? Orfilia. 15. The concept of “general acceptance” of scientific evidence relates to the: Frye standard. 16. A crime scene which involved the collapse of a structure would be analyzed by specialists in the area of: forensic engineering. 17. Which entity maintains the largest crime laboratory in the world? FBI. 18. Which unit has the responsibility for the examination of body fluids and organs for the presence of drugs and poisons? Toxicology unit. 19. What factor(s) do(es) the court usually take into consideration as sufficient grounds for qualification as an expert witness? All of these. 20. Which matter is NOT the province of civil litigation? The determination of competency to: stand trial for burglary. 21. The oldest forensic laboratory in the United States is that of the: Los Angeles Police Department. 22. Which of the following individuals was not an earlier contributor to the field of forensic toxicology? Alphonse Bertillon. 23. Which area of science is involved in criminalistics? All of these. 24. Which of the following is NOT true? An expert witness must be able to demonstrate: formal degree in forensic science. 25. The scientific method requires that scientific evidence be validated by: All of these. 26. Who devised a technique for determining the blood group of a dried bloodstain, which he applied to criminal investigations? Lattes. 27. Who developed the system known as anthropometry? Bertillon. 28. What is the major problem facing the forensic DNA community? Backlog of unanalyzed DNA samples. 29. Who undertook the first definitive study of fingerprints as a method of personal identification? Galton. 30. The case of Coppolino v. State highlights issues dealing with: the acceptability of new scientific tests. 31. The fictional character of Sherlock Holmes was created by: Doyle. 32. Which would not be included in the work of the biology unit of a crime lab? Fingerprint analysis. 33. Who established the comparison microscope as the indispensable tool of the modern firearms examiner? Goddard. 34. What is the LEAST important consideration in the gathering of evidence at a crime scene?...
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