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First Aid Chapter 16 Notes
Sudden illness

1. Sudden Illness, pg. 246
Many different illnesses may occur suddenly
Many become medical emergencies
Knowledge of a victim’s specific illness is not needed to give first aid

2. General Signs and Symptoms of Sudden Illness, pg. 246
Person feels ill, dizzy, confused or weak
Skin color changes
Flushed, pale or ashen
Sweating
Breathing changes
Nausea, vomiting

3. General Care for Sudden Illness, pg. 246
Call 9-1-1 for unexplained sudden illness
Help victim rest and avoid getting chilled or overheated
Reassure victim
Do not give victim anything to eat or drink
Watch for changes
Be prepared to give BLS

4. Heart Attack – Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI), p. 246 Sudden reduced blood flow to heart muscle
Medical emergency that often leads to cardiac arrest
Can occur at any age
Usually results from atherosclerosis (hardening of arteries)

5. Facts About Heart Attack, pg. 247 Box 16-1
Over 1,255,000 heart attacks occur a year in the United States, resulting in over 132,000 deaths Many could have been saved by first aid and medical treatment More likely in those with family history

1/5 of victims do not have chest pain
Victims typically deny they are having a heart attack

6. Prevention of Heart Attack, pg. 247
Do not smoke
Eat a healthy diet
Control blood pressure
Maintain normal weight
Get exercise
Control stress

7. Symptoms of Heart Attack, pg. 247
Can vary from vague chest discomfort to crushing pain with or without other symptoms May have no signs and symptoms before suddenly collapsing
May have milder symptoms that come and go before heart attack occurs Symptoms of Heart Attack continued
In women chest pain or discomfort most common symptom
Also more likely to have shortness of breath, jaw or back pain, indigestion, nausea and vomiting Consider possibility of heart attack with wide range of symptoms Don’t expect a clearly defined situation

Act quickly because deaths usually occur with an hour or two of symptoms

8. Aspirin and Heart Attack, pg. 247
Many patients at risk for cardiovascular disease advised to take one low-dose aspirin daily unless allergic or experience side effects For victims who do not need to avoid aspirin, chewing one uncoated adult aspirin or two low-dose baby aspirin is now recommended when experiencing heart attack symptoms

9. Nitroglycerin for Heart Attack, pg. 248
Increases blood flow by dilating arteries
Often prescribed for angina(chest pain)
-Type of chest pain caused by narrowed coronary arteries
Comes in tablets, sprays and patches
Nitroglycerin for Heart Attack continued
Can assist victim with prescribed nitroglycerine
Follow victim’s instructions
Do not attempt to give if victim unresponsive

10. First Aid for Heart Attack, pg. 247
Call 9-1-1 immediately.
Help victim into comfortable position. Loosen any tight clothing. Ask victim about medications.
Encourage the victim to chew one uncoated adult or two low-dose baby aspirin (unless allergic). Stay with victim. Be reassuring.

11. Angina, pg. 248
Chest pain caused by heart disease
Usually after activity or exertion
Pain usually lasts only few minutes
People usually know they have angina and carry medication
Angina continued
Ask if person has been diagnosed with angina; if so, ask if the pain is like angina pain experienced in past_ If so, help person with angina take medication and rest
If pain persists >10 minutes or stops and returns or person has other symptoms of heart attack give first aid as for heart attack

12. Stroke, pg. 248
Interruption of blood flow to part of brain
Kills nerve cells and affects brain function
Victims need medical help immediately
To decrease chance of permanent damage
More common in older adults
About 795,000 people a year have a stroke, resulting in about 136,000 deaths year in United States

13. Time is Critical, pg. 250
Take note of the time that symptoms...
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