* The normal serum calcium level is 8.6 to 10.0 mg/dL. A client with a serum calcium level of 4.0 mg/dL is experiencing hypocalcemia. The excessive ingestion of vitamin D and hyperparathyroidism are causative factors associated with hypercalcemia. End-stage renal disease, rather than renal insufficiency, is a cause of hypocalcemia. Prolonged bed rest is a cause of hypocalcemia. Although immobilization initially can cause hypercalcemia, the long-term effect of prolonged bed rest is hypocalcemia.
* Signs of hypocalcemia: paresthesias followed by numbness, hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, and a positive Trousseau’s or Chvostek’s sign. * Additional signs of hypocalcemia include increased neuromuscular excitability, muscle cramps, twitching, tetany, seizures, irritability, and anxiety. Gastrointestinal symptoms include increased gastric motility, hyperactive bowel sounds, abdominal cramping, and diarrhea.
* ECG Hypocalcemia: prolonged ST or QT interval.
ECG Hypercalcemia: shortened ST segment widened T wave.
* The normal magnesium level is 1.6 to 2.6 mg/dL. A magnesium level of 1.0 mg/dL indicates hypomagnesemia.
ECG hypomagnesemia: tall T waves, depressed ST segment.
ECG hypermagnesemia: Prominent U waves, widenened QRS complexes
* The normal serum phosphorus level is 2.7 to 4.5 mg/dL. Hypophosphatemia causative factors: malnutrition or starvation and the use of aluminum hydroxide–based or magnesium-based antacids. Malnutrition is associated with alcoholism. Causative factors of Hyperphosphatemia: Hypoparathyroidism, tumor lysis syndrome, and renal insufficiency.
* The normal serum amylase level is 25 to 151 units/L.
Chronic pancreatitis: the rise in serum amylase levels usually does not exceed three times the normal value. Acute pancreatitis: the value may exceed five times the normal value.
* The normal serum lipase level is 10 to 140 units/L. The client who is recovering from acute pancreatitis usually has elevated lipase levels for about 10 days after the onset of symptoms. This makes lipase a valuable test in monitoring the client’s pancreatic function because serum amylase levels usually return to normal 3 days after the onset of symptoms.
* Troponin is a regulatory protein found in striated muscle. The troponins function together in the contractile apparatus for striated muscle in skeletal muscle and in the myocardium. Increased amounts of troponins are released into the bloodstream when an infarction causes damage to the myocardium. A troponin T value that is higher than 0.1 to 0.2 ng/mL is consistent with a myocardial infarction. A normal troponin I level is lower than 0.6 ng/mL.
* The normal serum creatinine level for adults is 0.6 to 1.3 mg/dL. The client with a mild degree of renal insufficiency would have a slightly elevated level. A creatinine level of 0.2 mg/dL is low, and a level of 0.5 mg/dL is just below normal. A creatinine level of 3.5 mg/dL may be associated with acute or chronic renal failure. * The diet for a client with renal failure who is receiving hemodialysis should include controlled amounts of sodium, phosphorus, calcium, potassium, and...