Course Notes First Midterm

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Art of Persuasion
Credibility
Attractiveness
Flattery
Repetition
Rapid speech
Length
Fear
2-sides
Art of Deception
Machiavellian Intelligence Hypothesis
Niccolo Machiavelli
Social psychology
The study of how people feel, think, behave and interact within a social context Read chapter 1 and 2
Reading textbook and attending lectures is essential
Research Methods in Social Psychology
Human Intuition
Individuals are more likely to break up or divorce when separated Out of sight out of mind
Birds of a feather flock together, trumps “opposites attracts” Evolutionary Theory
Individuals produce more offspring than can survive
Individuals in a population vary in form, function and behavior and much of that variation is heritable Some forms of these heritable traits improve an individual’s chances of survival and reproduction Absence of evidence doesn’t mean evidence of absence

Weird
Western
Educated
Industrialized
Rich
Democratic
Hadzaland
About 30 individuals
Membership is very fluid
Sexual division of labor, women gather berries, men hunt
Food is shared fairly evenly among all camp members
Egalitarian
Office Hours
Room C3-A, Solomon Lab Building
Tues 11-12 or by appointment
Lowest in-class exam grade will be dropped
Hard copies of papers due at beginning of class
Do not email papers
4 points deducted each day paper is late

observational research
useful for generating hypotheses
provides information in natural setting
however, it sometimes yields biased results
survey research
inexpensive, large numbers (participants and variables)
sometimes yields biased results
difficult to be unobtrusive
cannot establish cause and effect
correlational research
examine large number of variables
provide information about the degree of the relationship
but cannot establish cause and effect
correlation is not causation
self selection
a problem that arises when the participant rather than the researcher selects his or her level on each variable experimental research
the only method to establish causality
experiments can be replicated
random assignment
condition A vs. Condition B
Outcome-dependent variable
But the results can be artificial-can have low external validity Demand characteristics
*know advantages/disadvantages of the three research methods

Self-Awareness
Explicit understanding that one exists, develops around age of 2 Do other animals have a sense of self?
No, animals are not self-aware
Sometimes animals think their reflections are another animal Chimpanzees and orangutans do
The Social Self
The self is a product of our construals
We also come to know ourselves through our social relationships Who we are is heavily affected by our social environment
Working self-concept
Individual self: personal traits, abilities, preferences, tastes, talents Relational self: sense of oneself in specific relationships (hard-working student) Collective self: beliefs about our identities as members of social groups

Reflected Self Appraisals
Social Comparison Theory
People compare themselves to other people in order to obtain an accurate assessment of themselves Slight downward comparisons are common
The Better than Average Effect
Also called the “Lake Wobegon” effect (a novel where everyone is better than average at everything) Positive feedback leads to inflated ego
Different criteria for goodness
The Spotlight Effect
People think that others are attending to their appearance or behaviors more than they actually are The Transparency Effect
We think people know when we’re lying, but really we’re better liars than we think In collective societies different words for “I” are used when talking to different people Humans tell self-narratives, but narratives vary cross-culturally Subjective self-awareness

Objective self-awareness
1st person perspective/subjective self-awareness
3rd person perspective/objective self-awareness...
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