Consumer Behavior Study Notes

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MKTG 4150 STUDY NOTES
Chapter 1: An Introduction to Consumer Behaviour
What is Consumer Behaviour?
Consumer Behaviour: the study of the processes involved when individuals or groups select, purchase, use, or dispose of products, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy needs and desires.

Consumer behaviour is a process
Buyer behaviour: the interaction between consumers and producers at the time of purchase. * Exchange (two or more organizations or people give and receive something of value) is an integral part of marketing

Consumer behaviour involves many different actors
* Purchaser and the user of a product may not necessarily be the same person * Another person can also act as an influencer when providing recommendations for or against certain products without actually buying or using them Segmenting Consumers

Market Segmentation: process of identifying groups of consumers who are similar to one another in one or more ways and devising marketing strategies that appeal to one or more groups Demographics: statistics that measure observable aspects of a population (i.e. birth rate, age distribution, income, etc.) * Changes and trends revealed in demographic studies are of great interest to marketers since it can be used to locate and predict the sizes of markets * Markets can usually be segmented by age, gender, family structure, social class and income, ethnicity, geography, and lifestyles Chapter 2: Perception

Exposure
Exposure: the degree to which people notice a stimulus that is within range of their sensory receptors Sensory Thresholds
Psychophysics: the science that focuses on how the physical environment is integrated into our personal, subjective world

The absolute threshold
Absolute threshold: the minimum amount of stimulation that can be detected on a sensory channel

The differential threshold
Differential threshold: the ability of a sensory system to detect changes in a stimulus or differences between the two stimuli Just noticeable difference (JND): the minimum change in a stimulus that can be detected * The ability to detect a difference between two stimuli is the relative difference between the decibel level of the message and its surroundings

Weber’s Law
The stronger the initial stimulus, the greater its change must be for it to be noticed

K= ΔII

where:
K = the constant increase or decrease necessary for the stimulus to be noticed (this varies across the senses)
∆I = the minimal change in intensity of the stimulus required to be just noticeable to the person (JND)
I = the intensity of the stimulus before the change occurs

* Retailers generally use a markdown rule of at least 20% to make an impact on shoppers

Subliminal Perception
* Another word for “threshold” is limen and stimuli that fall below the limen are called subliminal Subliminal perception: occurs when the stimulus is below the level of the consumer’s awareness

Subliminal techniques
Embeds: tiny figures that are inserted into magazine advertising by using high speed photography or airbrushing (supposedly exert strong but unconscious influences on innocent readers)

Does subliminal perception work? Evaluating the evidence
Factors why subliminal messages do not work:
1. There are wide individual differences in threshold levels. For a subliminal message to affect all individuals, it must be able to target ALL thresholds (which is impossible) 2. Advertisers cannot control the consumer’s position and distance from the screen (not everyone will have the same amount of exposure) 3. Consumers must pay absolute attention to the stimulus (not everyone does, most people are distracted) 4. Even if there is an effect, it only operates on a general level (can’t get a specific message out)

Attention
Attention: the extent in which the brain’s processing activity is devoted to a particular stimulus Multitask: the ability to process information from more than one medium at...
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