Lecture 1: Understanding the key concepts of Community, Community Development & Economic Development
Course Learning Outcomes
• Explain the key concepts of social infrastructure in spatial planning • Analyze social infrastructure issues in spatial planning • Identify the various challenges of social infrastructure in spatial planning practices
• Various definitions:
People who live within a geographically defined area and who have social and psychological ties with each other and with the place where they live (Mattessich and Monsey, 2004) A grouping of people who live close to one another and are united by common interests and mutual aids (National Research Council 1975)
• These definitions refer to people and the ties that bind them, then only to geographic locations • It means, without people and the connections/ties, community will be only a collections of buildings and streets. • However community does not necessarily means “living physically close to one another”. It also refers to social connections at other than living place such as workplace, sports centre, clubs or groups, or political affiliations. • Community can also be created through special interest or conditions such as disability, gender, belief • In this era of social media (such as FB, Twitter) madness, communities can be created on virtual platform.
Community Development (CD)
• Community Development is defined and described as..
– the process of developing stronger communities of people and the social and psychological ties they share. – The educational process to enable citizens to address problems by group decision-making – Involvement in a process to achieve improvement in some aspect of community life – All these processes will result in an outcome which is the improvement of community capital.
Human Capital • Labour supply, skills, experience, capabilities
Physical Capital • Buildings, streets,...