Chmistry Notes

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9.2 – Production of Materials:
Δ. Construct word and balanced formulae equations of all chemical reactions as they are encountered in this module: • Basic reactions to remember:
– Acid reactions:
▪ acid + base [pic] salt + water HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) [pic]NaCl(s) + H2O(l) ▪ acid + metal [pic] salt + hydrogen gas HCl(aq) + Mg(s)[pic]MgCl2(s) + H2 (g) ▪ acid + carbonate [pic] salt + carbon dioxide gas + water HCl(aq) + CaCO3(s)[pic] CaCl(s) + CO2(g) + H2O ▪ acid + hydrogen carbonate [pic]salt + carbon dioxide gas + water (note: there is CO2 solid, its dry ice) – Complete combustion:

▪ hydrocarbon + oxygen [pic] water + carbon dioxide
– Displacement reactions:
▪ Y + X (anion)[pic] X + Y (anion); where Y > X on activity series or Eo table. • Alkene/alkane reactions:
– Cracking of pentane:
▪ pentane [pic] ethylene + propane
▪ C5H12 (g) [pic] C2H4 (g) + C3H8 (g)
– Hydration of ethylene (the reverse can also happen known as de-hydration, where concentrated acid is used): ▪ ethylene + water [pic] ethanol
▪ C2H4 (g) + H2O (l) [pic] C2H5OH (l)
– Hydrogenation of ethylene:
▪ ethylene + hydrogen [pic] ethane
▪ C2H4 (g) + H2 (g) [pic]C2H6 (g)
– Hydrohalogenation (more specifically, Hydrofluorination) of ethylene: ▪ ethylene + hydrogen fluoride [pic] fluoroethane
▪ C2H4 (g) + HFl (g) [pic]C2H5Fl (g)
– Reaction of cyclohexene with bromine water:
▪ cyclohexene + bromine water[pic] 2-bromo-1-cyclohexane ▪ C6H10 (l) + Br2 (aq) [pic] C6H10Br2 (aq)
– Reaction of cyclohexane with bromine water (subsitution reaction, only under sunlight, that is UV light): ▪ C6H12 (l) + Br2(aq) [pic]C6H11Br(aq) + HBr(aq)

• Fermentation and combustion of ethanol:
– Fermentation of glucose:
▪ glucose [pic] ethanol + carbon dioxide
▪ C6H12O6 (aq) [pic] 2C2H5OH (aq) + 2CO2 (g)
▪ Note: the yeast used is zymase
– Combustion of ethanol:
▪ ethanol + oxygen [pic] carbon dioxide + water
▪ C2H5OH (l) + 3O2 (g) [pic] 2CO2 (g) + 3H2O (g) + 1367 kj/mol • Electrochemistry, an example:
– Displacement of copper from solution due to zinc:
▪ zinc + copper sulfate [pic] zinc sulfate + copper
▪ Zn (s) + CuSO4 (aq) [pic] ZnSO4 (aq) + Cu (s)
– Ionic equation:
▪ zinc + copper(II) ion + sulfate ion [pic] zinc(II) ion + sulfate ion + copper ▪ Zn + Cu2+ + SO42- [pic] Zn2+ + SO42- + Cu
– Net ionic equation:
▪ zinc + copper(II) ion[pic] zinc(II) ion + copper
▪ Zn (s) + Cu2+ (aq) [pic] Zn2+ (aq) + Cu (s)
– Half-equations:
▪ Zn [pic] Zn2+ + 2e¯
▪ Cu2+ + 2e¯ [pic] Cu
• Miscellaneous Terms:
– Pascal – It is the SI derived unit of pressure (symbol: Pa), a measure of force per unit area. – MPa – Mega Pascals.
– KPa – Kilo Pascals.
– IMF: Intermolecular Forces.
– Atmospheric pressure (ie atm): is equal to 101.3Kpa, so a few atm is about 200-300Kpa. – Homologous series: is a series of organic compounds (“most” molecules containing carbon) with a similar general formula, possessing similar chemical properties due to the presence of the same functional group. – Intermolecular forces: are the forces between molecules which hold two or more of them together. Example Polar bonds , dipole-dipole and dispersion forces. – Intramolecular forces: forces that happen inside of the molecule, and are the forces holding the atoms together with form the molecule. Example covalent bond or ionic bond. – Systematic name: it is a name that fully defines a chemical compound and is derived using a set of rules. The main rules are those produced by IUPAC. A systematic name is also known as the IUPAC name. 1. Fossil fuels provide both energy and raw materials such as ethylene, for the production of other substances: • RECALL:

– A Hydrocarbon is made up of Hydrogen and Carbon ONLY. – Alkane...
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