Chemistry 05.02 and 05.01

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LESSON 05.01
Wood blocks- solid
Hammer- solid
Lightning- plasma
Fluorescent light bulb- plasma
Steam and helium filled balloon is gas
Water from a faucet and swimming pool is liquid
-Can be distinguished at the molecular level by how the particles are held together -The phase of matter is considered a physical property because a change in a substance’s phase does not change the chemical properties or identity of the substance. -The phases of matter are determined by the kinetic energy of the particles and the attractive forces between the particles. -Attractions between particles, called intermolecular forces. -The effects of the motion of the particles on these attractions determines the arrangement of the particles in a sample of matter.

PLASMA
-Electrically charged gas because of extreme temperatures, the particles move so quickly that their collisions release electrons from the atoms. -Mixture of electrons and positively charged ions with high kinetic energy is described as the plasma phrase. -Because of its extreme temperature, plasma is not common on earth. -The sun and stars are mad of elements in the plasma state, and plasmas can also be found inside of a glowing fluorescent light bulb, small fluorescent lights in plasma television screens, and at locations where high- energy lightning strikes in the air.

SOLIDS
-Particle Arrangement:

The particles in solids are packed tightly together. In most solids, the particles are arranged in a specific, fixed pattern.

Particle Motion:

Particles cannot move around very much; they mainly vibrate in place. Particles cannot move around very much, they have a fixed volume and shape. They do not take the shapes or sizes of their containers.

LIQUIDS

-Particle Arrangement:

The particles in liquids are fairly close together, but not as close together as those in solids. They are not arranged in a fixed pattern.

Particle Motion:

The particles in liquids have enough energy to slide past one another. Still close together; they have fixed volumes, but not fixed shapes. They take the shapes of their containers.

GASES

-Particle Arrangement:
-The particles in gases are very far apart. They do not have any fixed arrangement.

-Particle Motion:
The particles in gases have so much energy that they stay as far apart as possible. They are constantly flying around at very high speeds. Particles are so far apart and move so quickly, they have no fixed volume and no fixed shape. They expand to fill their containers. Gases are also highly compressible — that is, it's possible to reduce their volumes considerably by applying pressure to them. That's because there's so much empty space between the gas particles.

PLASMA

Particle Arrangement:

The particles in plasmas, like those in gases, are very far apart. They do not have any fixed arrangement.

Particle Motion:

The particles in plasmas have even more energy than those in gases. They move even more quickly. Like gases, they are compressible and have neither a fixed volume nor a fixed shape. Plasmas also have another important characteristic: they are made up of highly energetic ions. The particles in plasmas have gained enough energy to lose some of their electrons. Plasmas are actually made up of positively charged particles and negatively charged electrons that move around independently.

LESSON 05.02
Just as a substance’s phase is determined by kinetic energy and intermolecular forces of attraction, a change between different phases of matter is caused by the transfer of energy (usually a gain or loss of heat). Melting- process of a solid transforming to a liquid. When heat is added to a solid the particles kinetic energy increases and they vibrate more and more violently. If enough heat is added, the attractive forces between the particles are not able to hold them together. This is when the solid melts, and the temperature at which a given...
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