Cheat Sheet

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Chapter 1: Intro
Independent Variable - variable you deliberately change during an experiment Theory - explanation based on a large number of experiments
Hypothesis - educated prediction of cause and effect - what you test in an experiment Control - a zero or set form of the independent variable
Dependent - variable you measure because you think it could change 7 characteristics: order, regulation, growth and development, energy processing, response to the environment, reproduction, evolutionary adaptation Ecosystem - consists of all the organisms living in a particular area and the nonliving environmental components and interactions Community - all the living organisms in an ecosystem

Population - localized group of individuals of a species
Species - population or group of populations whose members can reproduce fertile offspring   Taxonomy - science of classifying organisms
Domain > Kingdom > Phylum > Class > Order > Family > Genus > Species Prokaryotic Cells - do not have a nucleus, simple and small, bacteria Eukaryotic Cells - has a nucleus, possess organelles separated by membranes, plants, animals, fungi Protista - single-celled, colonial eukaryotes, contains nucleus and other membrane bound structures, mobile Plantae - photosynthetic, multicellular autotrophs, cellulose cell walls, contain chlorophyll Fungi - multicellular heterotrophs, digest and internalize food from their surroundings, immobile, chitin cell walls Animalia - multicellular heterotrophs, internal digestive system Chapter 2: Chemical Basis of Life

CarbonHydrogenNitrogenOxygenPhosphorusSulfur
Atom - fundamental unit of matter
Element - matter made from only one type of atom
Compound - different types of atoms associated by chemical bonds Isotopes - variant forms of an element
Radioactivity - nucleus of an atom falls apart, releasing high-energy particles and gamma rays that destroy other atoms Atoms form bonds to fill outer electron shells and neutralize charges Ionic Bonds - unequal electron sharing so that atoms carry a charge (become ions) Covalent Bonds - electrons shared relatively equally in new molecular shells that cover both atoms Acidic higher concentration of H 1-6 Basic lower concentration of H+ 8-14 Chapter 3: The Molecules of Cells

Hydrocarbons are composed of only hydrogen and carbon
Four main classes of biological molecules: carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids Macromolecules - large molecules made of smaller molecules
Dehydration Synthesis - process by which macromolecules are formed from smaller molecules

| Monomers| Polymer (Macromolecule)|
carbohydrates| monosaccharides - glucose| polysaccharides, complex carbs, storage for glucose, structural carbs| lipids: form structures like cell and organelle membranes, make fats, hydrophobic, cholesterol| do not dissolve in water| cell membranes| proteins: encoded by genes, essential to the structures and activities of life, speed up and organize metabolic reactions, store amino acids, specific shape determines its function| 20 amino acids| polypeptides (protein) structures, storage, work, enzymes| nucleic acids | nucleotides| DNA or RNA|

Protein: shape depends on 4 levels of structure
Primary - sequence of amino acids forming its polypeptide chains, determines function of protein
Secondary - coiling or folding of the chain
Tertiary - overall 3D shape of a polypeptide
Quaternary - results from the association of 2 or more polypeptide chains (chemical interactions between separate amino acid chains) Form = Function
Nucleic Acids - information rich polymers of nucleotides (used for energy transfer) Chapter 4: A Tour of the Cell
Light Microscopes - magnify cells up to 1,000 times, can view living cells Electron Microscope - allows greater magnification and reveals cellular details, but kills the cell Nucleus - genetic control center, usually largest organelle, contains cell’s DNA Mitochondria - harvest chemical energy...
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