Chapter Outline Chapter 2

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Chapter Outline Chapter 2

I. Developmental theories and the issues they raise
A. The Importance of Theories
1. Guides the collection of new information
a. what is most important to study
b. what can be hypothesized or predicted
c. how it should be studied
B. Qualities of a Good Theory
1. Internally consistent-- its different parts are not contradictory 2. Falsifiable-- generates testable hypotheses
3. Supported by data-- describes, predicts, and explains human development C. Four Major Theories (psychoanalytic, learning, cognitive developmental, contextual/systems) D. Nature/Nurture
1. Nature-- genetic/biological predisposition
2. Nurture-- emphasis on experience/environmental impact
E Goodness/Badness of Human Nature
1. Hobbes-- children are selfish and bad and society must teach them to behave in a civilized way 2. Rousseau-- children are innately good and society must not interfere with innate goodness 3. Locke-- child born neither good nor bad, but like a tabula rasa or “blank slate” F. Activity and Passivity

1. Activity-- control over one’s development
2. Passive-- product of forces beyond one’s control (environmental or biological) G. Continuity/Discontinuity
1. Continuity-- gradual change (small steps)
2. Discontinuity-- abrupt change
3. Qualitative or quantitative change
a. qualitative-- changes in a degree
b. quantitative-- change in kind
c. developmental stages part of discontinuity approach
H. Universality/Context-Specificity
1. Universality-- developmental change common to everyone
2. Context-specific-- developmental changes vary by individual/culture II. Freud: Psychoanalytic theory
A. Sigmund Freud: Viennese Physician and Founder of Psychoanalytic Theory 1. Emphasis on motive and emotions of which we are unaware
2.. Theory less influential than in the past
B. Instincts and Unconscious Motives
1. Instincts-- inborn biological forces that motivate behavior 2. Unconscious motivation-- instinctive and inner force influences beyond our awareness/control 3. Emphasis on nature (biological instincts)

C. Id, Ego, and Superego
1. Id
a. all psychic energy contained here
b. basic biological urges
c. impulsive
d. seeks immediate gratification
2. Ego
a. rational side of personality
b. ability to postpone pleasure
3. Superego
a. internalized moral standards
b. perfection principle (adhere to moral standards)
4. Id, ego and superego conflict common/inevitable
5. Problems arise when level of psychic energy unevenly distributed D. Psychosexual Development
1. Importance of libido-- sex instinct’s energy shifts body locations 2. Five stages of psychosexual development
a. oral stage
b. anal stage
c. phallic stage
d. latency period
e. genital stage
3. Conflict of id and social demands leads to ego’s defense mechanisms defense mechanisms-- unconscious coping mechanisms of the ego i. fixation-- Development arrested at early stage
ii. regression-- Retreat to earlier stage
4. Phallic stage-- Oedipus and Electra complexes (incestuous desire) resolve by identifying with same-sex parent and incorporating parent’s values into the super ego 5. Genital stage-- experienced during puberty

a. conflict and distance from parents
b. greater capacity to love and have children in adulthood
c. teen pregnancy due to inability to manage sexual urges because of childhood experiences E. Strengths and Weaknesses
1. Difficult to test and ambiguous
2. Weak support for specific aspects of the theory (e.g., sexual seduction by parents) 3. Greater support for broad ideas
a. unconscious motivation
b. importance of early experience, especially parenting
III. Erikson: Neo-Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory
A. Neo-Freudians-- Important Disciples of Psychoanalytic Theory 1. Notable neo-Freudians: Jung, Horney, Sullivan, Anna Freud 2. Erikson is most important life span neo-Freudian theorist 3. Erikson’s differences with Freud

a. less emphasis on sexual and more on social influences
b. less emphasis on id,...
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