Chapter 4: the Visual Elements

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Chapter 4: The Visual Elements
Contour & Outline
-Outline: boundaries for 2-D forms
-Contours: the boundaries we perceive of 3-D forms
-Contour Lines: are the lines we draw to record those boundaries
Ex) Jennifer Pastor (cowboy mish-mosh drawing) “The Perfect Ride” Direction & Movement
-Directional lines: follow + create movement
-Diagonal = imply action
-Vertical = assertive quality
-Lines formed by edges
Implied Lines
-Dotted lines
Ex) The Embarkation of Cythera—Jean-Antoine Watteau
-Pointed finger / organisms gaze
Shape and Mass
-Shape: 2-D form / occupies area w/ identifiable boundaries
Ex) Emmi Whitehorse’s “Chanter” (geometric + organic)
-Mass: 3-D form / occupies volume of space
Ex) “The Raven and the First men”—Bill Reid’s (organic)
-Geometric shapes: + masses = square, triangle, circle, cube, pyramid, sphere
-Organic: + masses = irregular + evoke living forms of nature
-Figure: a shape we detach & focus on
-Ground: is the surrounding visual info the figure stands out from
-Positive Shapes: shapes we perceive as figures
-Negative Shapes: the shapes of the ground are
Implied Shapes
-Optical puzzles
-“The Modonna of Meadows”—Mary + John the Baptist + Jesus = triangle Light + Implied Light (modeling mass in 2-D)
-James Turell
-Model: give them a 3-D appearance—light and shadow model them
-Values: shades of light and dark—White = highest value / Dark = darkest value
-Chiaroscuro: Renaissance technique—Italian for “light/dark”.
-15th century
-Artists employ values—lights & darks—to record contrasts of light & shadow in the natural
world—contrasts that model mass for our eyes
Ex) Leonardo da Vinci “The Virgin and Saint Anne with the Christ Child and John the Baptist”

Colors
-Color Wheel: arrange colors
-Primary Colors: (red, yellow, blue) cannot be made by mixing colors together
-Secondary (Tertiary) Colors: (orange, green, violet) Made by combining 2 primary colors -Intermediate (Tertiary) Colors: (yellow-green) product of a primary color and adjacent secondary Color

-Warm Colors: red-orange—association w/ sunlight + fire
-Cool colors: blue-green—association w/ sky, water, shade
-Palette: refers to the wooden board used by artists to set out pigments
Also refers to the range of pigments selected
Color Properties (3)
-Hue: name of the color according to the categories of the color—green, or red, or blue-violet -Value: refers to relative lightness or darkness
Ex)
-Tint: color lighter than the hue’s normal value
-Shade: color darker than the hue’s normal value
-Intensity (chroma or saturation): refers to the relative purity of a color
-purest = highest intensity -duller = lower intensity
Color Harmonies
-Color scheme = selective use of two+ colors in a single composition
-Manochromatic: harmonies composed of variation on the same hue—differences of value & intensity
-Complementary: harmonies involving colors directly opposite (red & green)
-Analogous: harmonies combine colors adjacent on another (yellow + yellow-orange + orange)
-Triadic: harmonies composed of any three colors equidistant from each other on the color wheel -red + yellow + blue
-Restricted Palette: limited to few pigments in mixtures, tints, and shades
-Open Palette: all things
Optical Effects of Colors
-Simultaneous Contrast: complementary colors appear more intense when place side-by-side
-After-image: optical effect—prolonged staring at saturated colors fatigue the receptors in our eyes
-ghostly afterimage
-popular in 19th century—Impressionist painters (tint shadows in paintings w/complementary colors of nearby highlight
-“Larger” colors: warm hues (red + orange + yellow) / high intensity / dark value
-“Small” colors: cooler hues (blue + green) / low intensity / light value
-Optical Color mixture: (George Seurat)—small patches of...
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