CHAPTER 4: The Bonds of Empire, 1660-1750
o Rebellion and War, 1660-1713
▪ Before Restoration (1660), England made little attempt to weld colonies ▪ Royal Centralization, 1660-1688
• Restoration monarchs disliked representative government • Charles II rarely called parliament into session after 1674, and none after 1681 • James II wanted to rule as absolute monarch o Meant he would never face an elected legislation • These 2 kings had little sympathy for Am. Colonial assemblies • Charles II’s brother, James (Duke of York) considered elected assemblies “of dangerous consequence” and forbade them to meet in NY • New Eng. tried to resist crown policies and defend self-gov. • Mass. 1661= citizens free from laws & decrees from Eng. except for war • Colony ignored Navigation Acts
• 1679, Charles II punished Mass. by carving NH out of it • 1684=Charles II made Mass. a royal colony & revoked its charter (foundation of the Puritan city upon a hill) • Despite resistance royal centralization accelerated after James II o Consolidated Mass., NH, Conn., RI, and Plymouth into Dominion of New Eng. o 1688= NY and the Jerseys came in o Sir Edmund Andros became governor of Dominion of New Eng. ▪ The Glorious Revolution in England and America, 1688-1689 • Charles II converted to Catholicism on deathbed • Eng. tolerated James’ conversion to Catholicism b/c his heirs (Mary and Anne) were Anglican • Bloodless revolution of 1688=Glorious revolution o Created limited monarchy in Eng. ▪ Promised to summon parliament once a yr., sign all its bills, and respect traditional civil liberties o William and Mary (now king and queen of eng. after they overthrew James) dismantled Dominion of New Eng. o NY rebelled with Leisler’s Rebellion ▪ Seized main fort on May 31, 1689 ▪ Cap. Jacob Leisler took command of NY ▪ He was charged with treason for firing on troops & went to the gallows o Maryland made their religion in 1692 Protestant ▪ Catholics lost right to vote, and could only worship in private o Revolutionary events of 1688-1689 changed colonists’ political climate, reestablished legislative gov., and ensured religious freedom for Protestants o Mary and Williams dismantled the Dominion of New England and directed governors to call annual assemblies, which allowed colonial elites to reassert control over local affairs o Foundation laid for an empire based on voluntary allegiance ▪ A Generation of War 1689-1713
• Bloodless revolution brought in 25 years of warfare, convulsing with Europe and North Am. • King William’s War (aka War of the League of Augsburg) was first struggle to embroil colonists and Native Am. in European rivalries o NY and New Englanders launched 2 prong war of New France in 1690, one prong at Montreal, other at Quebec o Both invasions failed, and border raids occurred • Five Nations Iroquois Confederacy had bloodiest fighting in King Williams’ War. They were almost alone against their foes. 1696 French armies destroyed all but two villages • King William’s war ended in 1697, but Five nations went on until...
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