AP U.S. History
29 November 2012
Chapter 13 Terms
Wilmot Proviso-unsuccessful 1846 congressional amendment that sought to ban slavery in territories newly acquired from Mexico
California Gold Rush- (1848-1855) began on January 24, 1848, when gold was discovered by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill, in Coloma, California, news of the discovery brought some 300,000 people to California from the rest of the United States and abroad
Indian Slavery- during the Gold Rush, the Indians were exploited in a way that resembled slavery
Daniel Webster- leading American statesman during the nation's Antebellum Period. He first rose to regional prominence through his defense of New England shipping interests
Zachary Taylor- 12th President of the United States; died in office (1784-1850)
Fugitive Salve Act- provided harsh punishments for people who helped slaves run away. It also forced people living in free states to return run-away slaves to their owners.
Transcontinental Railroad- railroad network of trackage that crosses a continental landmass, with termini at different oceans or continental borders
Kansas Nebraska Act- 1854 created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opened new lands, repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820, and allowed settlers in those territories to determine if they would allow slavery within their boundaries
Pottawatomie Massacre- reaction to the sacking of Lawrence (Kansas) by pro-slavery forces, John Brown and a band of abolitionist settlers (some of them members of the Pottawatomie Rifles) killed seven settlers north of of Pottawatomie Creek in Franklin County, Kansas. This was one of the many bloody episodes in Kansas preceding the American Civil War
Preston Brooks- Democratic Congressman from South Carolina, known for severely beating Senator Charles Sumner on the floor of the United States Senate with a cane in response to an insult. His first cousin, Matthew Butler, was a Confederate general
Free Soil Ideology- superiority of free labor was their main ideology. They thought that free labor was a better system of labor than slave labor because it was more efficient. It would stop the spread of slavery in new territories but it was still racist because they didn't like the idea of slaves, and white people had to compete with the blacks for jobs.
James Buchanan- 15th President of the United States (1791-1868)
Lyceums- advocates for volunteer educational institutions in towns and villages, organization would host educational lectures and programs Abraham Lincoln- the 16th president, saved the Union during the American Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865)
Lecompton Constitution- the second of four proposed constitutions for the state of Kansas
Whig Party- former political party in the United States; formed in 1834 in opposition to the Democratic Party; advocated a loose interpretation of the Constitution and high protective tariffs
Free Soil Party- former political party in the United States; formed in 1848 to oppose the extension of slavery into the territories; merged with the Liberty Party in 1848
Compromise of 1850- five bills, passed in September 1850, defusing a four year confrontation between the slave states of the South and the free states of the North that arose from expectation of territorial expansion of the United States with the Texas Annexation, resulted in the admission of California as a free state and a fugitive slave law protecting the South
Stephen Douglas- American politician from the western state of Illinois, and was the Northern Democratic Party nominee for President in 1860
Millard Fillmore- elected vice president and became the 13th President of the United States when Zachary Taylor died in office
Ostend Manifesto- document written in 1854 that described the rationale for the United States to purchase Cuba from Spain and implied the U.S. should...