Chapter 27 Study Guide

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Chapter 27 – Tradition and Change in East Asia

The Ming Dynasty
1368-1644
Restored traditional Chinese rule
Hongwu was founder
Tried to drive out any Mongol influence
Used mandarins to travel through the empire to make sure policy was being followed oAlso used eunuchs who were loyal to the gov’t because they couldn’t have families The Emperor Yongle used the navy to expand and show China’s power Kept powerful army to keep out invaders in the early years oMongol armies defeated them several times

Later emperors added to, refurbished and built more of the Great Wall through the northern regions to keep out invaders oHad watch towers and places for soldiers to stay
oExtended about 1,550 miles
Ming leaders encouraged Chinese people to get rid of Mongol names and style of clothing Brought back the Confucian education system, colleges, and academies Restored the civil service exam
Problems began to weaken the state in mid 1500’s
oPirates and smugglers operated along the coast – navy proved ineffective against them •Would loot cities and sometime kill people
It took 40 years to bring them down
Later emperors lived lives that were too extravagant – palace called Forbidden City Some emperors ignored government affairs
Powerful eunuchs used the power to enrich their lives
oBecame corrupt and inefficient and led to a weakened state Famines then hit China in the early 17th century
oGov’t couldn’t bring relief to the people
1640’s peasant rebellions organized resistance against Ming Manchu armies invaded from the North – allied with Ming army and crushed rebellion oHowever, they then didn’t restore Ming rule and took over themselves

The Qing Dynasty
When Ming fell, Manchus poured into China
Declared a new dynasty – Qing (pure)
Ruled from 1644-1911
From north of China – had been pastoral nomads
A chief named Nurhaci unified them into a centralized state oDeveloped law code
oOrganized powerful army
oManchu armies captured Korea and Mongolia
oFinally seized Beijing in 1644
oFought Ming loyalists for 40 years
Early mid 1680’s they were firmly in control
Many Chinese had supported the Manchu – tired of Ming rule Manchu rulers learned Chinese and studied Confucian education Many times got more respect from the scholar-bureaucrats than they had given the Ming Manchu preserved their own culture by:

oOutlawing marriage with Chinese
oForbidding Chinese from traveling to Manchuria
oForbidding Chinese learning Manchuria
Most effective emperors were Kanxi and Qianlong
Kangxi (1661-1722) – enlighten ruler, Confucian scholar, poet oTried to apply Confucian ideas to his policies
oWas also a conqueror – took Taiwan, part of Mongolia and central Asia oHad protectorate over Tibet
His grandson was Qianlong (1736-1795)
oContinued expansion – made Vietnam, Burma and Nepal vassal states oHis reign was the height of the dynasty
oVery educated – maybe composed over 100,000 poems
oThe empire was stable and prosperous under his reign

The Son of Heaven and the Scholar-Bureaucrats
Ming and Qing both ruled over highly centralized state
Administered through bureaucracy of Confucian scholars
Emperor were the “son of heaven” – keep order on earth Had thousands of eunuchs to do whatever he wanted
Had hundreds of concubines
His activities were very organized with many duties
Subjects had to perform the kowtow
Small offenses could get severe punishments
Day to day governing of the empire was done by the scholar-bureaucrats oMost came from the Confucian educated scholar-gentry
Preparing for the exams began early in schools or at home (for the wealthy) oBy 11 or 12 memorized thousands of characters in order to work with Confucian curriculum oCalligraphy, poetry, essays

oHad to know about many different writings
oSeveral tests at the district, provincial and metropolitan levels •Only 300 could pass the...
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