Chapter 24 Discussion Questions
How sanitary were houses of the British lower orders?
The houses of the British lower orders were completely unsanitary and unhealthy. In
various sections of Manchester, as many as 200 people shared one outhouse. These
outhouses were not cleaned out often and sewage overflowed and seeped into dwellings.
Some courtyards became dung hills and sometimes excrement was gathered and sold as
How did women’s status change during the 19th Century?
Women usually did not work in the factories in 19th century Europe. It became expected
of them to stay home and take care of the children. They formed bonds with their
children because of the decrease in infant mortality rates and genuinely loved their
husbands because people married out of love, not for economic reasons. Women had
legal inferiority to their husbands and worked to change that throughout the 19th century.
They campaigned for equal voting rights and access to higher education and professional
employment. These groups gained important victories like the 1882 law that gave
English women complete property rights.
Discuss the philosophy of Auguste Comte.
Auguste Comte was a French philospher who was an exceptionally influential system
builder in the 19th century. He believed that intellectual activity goes through predictable
stages. Comte believed that his new discipline of sociology would identify the eternal
laws of human relations by applying the scientific method, or positivist method as it is
also known. These stages of knowledge illustrate the popularity of the idea of evolution
in the 19th century.
How was transportation transformed in the 19th Century?
In the 1870s horse-drawn streetcars operated in many European cities, which were invented in America. In the 1890s European cities utilized the electric streetcar, which was another American invention. Electric streetcars were cheaper and faster than horse-drawn...
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