Cargo Handling and Stowage

Topics: Cargo ship, Cargo, Dunnage Pages: 25 (8808 words) Published: August 9, 2012
Hold cleaning and inspection
Prior to loading and after discharging, hold spaces must be inspected and the cargo/ballast systems should be tested. The inspection is primarily directed towards checking the ship’s integrity.

The possible causes for the lack of integrity which can cause damage are the following: Damage to shell and deck plating;
Damage to hatch coaming and hatch covers;
Improperly closed or blanks ventilators;
Leaking pipes and manhole covers; and
Improperly closed return valves in the bilge line, etc.

During the inspection, particular attention must be given and dents and other forms of damage to the ship’s structure, which should be carefully examined for leakage and signs of deterioration such as cracking and deformity. Bent, twisted, or out of shape stiffeners that do not function should be cut and replaced as soon as possible. Tanks and air pipes must be pressure tested and leaking manhole covers must be checked on a regular basis. If ‘tween decks are fitted, the ‘tween deck scupper pipes must be tested. Drip trays and trucking of ventilators must be place in any accumulation of dirt must be removed. Piping and electric cables running through hold spaces must be examined and any damage must be examined from a safety point of view and repaired as early as possible.

To the casual observer, glancing down into a ship’s cargo hold may not appear that there are many things that could go wrong with the space below. Yet, before an officer can make an entry in the ships logbook relating to the condition of the cargo spaces, he must checked a long list of items.

The following items must be inspected and tested prior to arrival at loading port and after discharging. Some of these tests may be performed on a regular routine basis, and may not be repeated before each port. 1. Hold bilges or wells

The bilge space, including the bilge strainer, must be clean. It is good practice to leave the bilge dry. This is an essential requirement for reefers and ships with sensitive bulk cargo such as grain. The sounding pipes must be clear, and watertight caps should be checked. The non-return valve must be working.

Any high level alarm must be working.
Ensure that the bilge pump is working properly.
The bilge well strainer must be covered with burlap if required. 2. Ventilators
Fire flaps must be greased up and any rust should be removed. Closing devices and rubber seals must be intact and in good condition. Fans must be tested on forward and reverse, if applicable. Non-return floats in tank air pipes must be free and functioning correctly. 3.Sensors

fire/smoke detecting system in the cargo holds must be working (heat or smoke tested). The outlet pipe of the smothering system must be clear. This can be checked by blowing through pipes with compressed air after blanking of the pipe to the fire detection system. Thermometer or sampling pipes must be clear and their watertight caps should be checked. All portable thermometers and their rope lines should be checked. Any temperature probes must be working and checked for broken leads and damaged sensing heads. 4. Access

All ladders and handrails must be safe to use and any damage should be repaired. All doors and lids to access must be free and their watertight seals should be in good condition. The locks, pins, or other means of keeping these doors and lids open should be operating correctly.

5. Lightning
Fixed systems must be tested and bulbs or tubes should be renewed when necessary. •Conduits and cables must be examined for damage and should be repaired immediately. •Non-functioning systems must be isolated, e.g. by removing the fuses or repairing them if required. 6. Hold Damage

All pipelines must be examined for leakage
Manhole lids should be checked for leakage
Steelwork and welds must be examined for fractures and excessive corrosion. 7. Hatch...
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