Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance: Water Homeostasis 1. Below are listed the four examples of disturbances in water homeostasis. Indicate if there is an increase (↑), decrease (↓), or no change (↔) in volume and osmolarity. Give an example of each. Disturbance
2. What are the four primary mechanisms to regulate fluid homeostasis? a.
3. Answer the following questions on antidiuretic hormone (ADH): a. What is the major stimulus? _______________________
b. What is the direct effect of the hormone? _______________________ c. What effect will this have on plasma volume and osmolarity? _______________________ d. What effect will this have on urine volume and osmolarity? _______________________ 4. List three ways dehydration leads to increased thirst:
5. Answer the following questions on the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System. a. What enzyme is released from the kidney in response to decreased blood pressure? _______________________
b. What enzyme converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II? ______________ c. What are two effects of angiotensin II?
d. How does aldosterone cause more sodium to be reabsorbed in the kidney? e. As a result, what happens to blood volume and blood pressure? _______ 6. a. A decrease in blood volume and blood pressure will lead to a/an ______________ in the sympathetic nervous system (SNS).
b. This will result in a decrease (↓), and increase (↑), or no change (↔) in the following: 1. ______ Afferent arteriolar constriction
2. ______ Blood flow to the glomerulus
3. ______ Urine loss
4. ______ Renin release
7. a. Diabetes insipidus is due to ______________________________. b. What will happen to the following:
1. ______ Urine output
2. ______ Plasma sodium
3. ______ Plasma osmolarity
4. ______ Thirst
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