Bridging the Gap Between Hr Policy Implementation and Knowledge Management Practices: a Case Study of Merchant Credit of Sri Lanka

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Leadership Theories

1. Great Man Theory
2. Trait Theory
3. Behavioral Theories
a. Role Theory
b. The Managerial Grid
4. Participative Leadership
a. Lewin's leadership styles
b. Likert's leadership styles
5. Situational Leadership
a. Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leadership
b. Vroom and Yetton's Normative Model
c. House's Path-Goal Theory of Leadership
6. Contingency Theories
a. Fiedler's Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC) Theory
b. Cognitive Resource Theory
c. Strategic Contingencies Theory
7. Transactional Leadership
a. Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory
8. Transformational Leadership
a. Bass' Transformational Leadership Theory
b. Burns' Transformational Leadership Theory
c. Kouzes and Posner's Leadership Participation Inventory

1. Great Man Theory

Assumptions
Leaders are born and not made.
Great leaders will arise when there is a great need.

Description
Early research on leadership was based on the the study of people who were already great leaders. These people were often from the aristocracy, as few from lower classes had the opportunity to lead. This contributed to the notion that leadership had something to do with breeding. The idea of the Great Man also strayed into the mythic domain, with notions that in times of need, a Great Man would arise, almost by magic. This was easy to verify, by pointing to people such as Eisenhower and Churchill, let alone those further back along the timeline, even to Jesus, Moses, Mohammed and the Buddah.

Discussion
Gender issues were not on the table when the 'Great Man' theory was proposed. Most leaders were male and the thought of a Great Woman was generally in areas other than leadership. Most researchers were also male, and concerns about androcentric bias were a long way from being realized.

2. Trait Theory

Assumptions
People are born with inherited traits.
Some traits are particularly suited to leadership.
People who make good leaders have the right (or sufficient) combination of traits.

Description
Early research on leadership was based on the psychological focus of the day, which was of people having inherited characteristics or traits. Attention was thus put on discovering these traits, often by studying successful leaders, but with the underlying assumption that if other people could also be found with these traits, then they, too, could also become great leaders. Stogdill (1974) identified the following traits and skills as critical to leaders.  

|Traits |Skills | |Adaptable to situations |Clever (intelligent) | |Alert to social environment |Conceptually skilled | |Ambitious and achievement-orientated |Creative | |Assertive |Diplomatic and tactful | |Cooperative |Fluent in speaking | |Decisive |Knowledgeable about group task | |Dependable |Organised (administrative ability) | |Dominant (desire to influence others) |Persuasive | |Energetic (high activity level) |Socially skilled | |Persistent |  | |Self-confident |...
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