Biology a Exam, and Earth Science

Topics: Earth, Igneous rock, Plate tectonics Pages: 58 (12644 words) Published: March 7, 2013
Freshman Year Semester 1 Exam Study
Honors Earth Science:

Chapter 1:

Branches of earth science

Astronomy - study of objects beyond earths atmosphere

Meteorology - study of air that surrounds the earth~ how air interacts us give us weather

Geology- study of the materials that make up the earth and the processes that form and change those materials -4.6 billion

Oceanography- study of earths oceans    3/4 Of earths surface

* subspecialties are climatology, ecology, paleontology, geochemistry, hydrology and tectonics

Lithosphere - rigid outer shell of the planet and includes the solid uppermost part of the layer below the crust, called the mantle          -oceanic crust-dense rock called basalt
         -continental crust-less dense rock called granite          -asthenosphere - partially molten layer under the crust with flows like melted plastic

Hydrosphere - water in earth's oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, glaciers and atmosphere           -97% salt water

Atmosphere - Blanket of gases that surrounds our planet
          - 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% trace

Biosphere - all organisms on the earth and the environments they live in           - most live within a few meter of earths surface

* spheres are all independent (they get along and depend on each other) * Most weather is in the troposphere

Hypothesis - suggested explanation for an observation

Scientific method- no one method, but should have the following

- determine problem or q
- so some research
- state a hypothesis and make a prediction
- develop a test for hypothesis

- select a sample
- identify variables
- conduct experiment, observe and record results

- organize the data using graphs, tables or charts
- analyze graphs, tables and charts
- look for trends and compare to hypothesis/ prediction

 - draw conclusions
- re-evaluate hypothesis
-formulate new questions

Experiment - an organized procedure for test a hypothesis
- control, a standard for comparison. Shows how result are related to a condition or not that you are testing -constant, factor that doesn't vary in an experiment. These remain fixed so only the variable you are changing has an effect on the experiment - independent, factor adjusted, or manipulated by the experiment -depend, factor whose value depends upon the value depends upon the value of the independent variable or factor that changes when the independent variable is changed

Standard measurements - use the international systems (SI)
1 ml = 1cm cubed
- length: meter
                - length of physical shape
- weight: gravitational force
              - newton
- mass: amount of matter, or how much stuff things are made from              - gram
- area: 2D
             - m squared or cm squared
             - L x W
- volume: 3D
             -L x W x H
             - amount of space an object takes up
-Time: seconds
- temperature: measure of the average vibrations of the particles that make up the material              - Celsius (C) or kelvin (K)
             - k = C + 273

Scientific Notation- used to easily write very large or small numbers         - if the exponent is  positive, the number is very large         - if the exponent is negative, the number is a very small decimal

Metric conversion -
Kilo - 1000
Hecta - 100
Deka - 10
Base - liter, meter, sec, gram
Deci- 0.1
Centi 0.01
Milli- 0.001

Kids Have Died _ Doing Conversion Metric

Chapter 3:

Chapter 4:

Mineral- naturally occurring, inorganic solid with a specific chemical composition and a definite crystalline structure.          - Not man made.
Magma- Molten material beneath the Earth's surface
         - O, Si, Al, Fe, Na, K, Mg (95% of all Earth's elements)          - About 90 elements occur naturally in the Earth, and those, only about 8 make up a vast majority of the minerals found in the Earth's crust and magma.          - Magma heats up by the...
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