Biology Reviewer

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Biology Reviewer
I. Definition of the cell
-Cell is the basic unit/structure of life

II. History of cell
A. (1665) Robert Hooke- discovered the cell and he established the drawing of a cork cell B. (1674) Anton van Leeuwenhoek- observed red blood cell and myriad in a single cell organism in Pond water -discovered the nucleus -completed the microscope C. Francesco Redi (1627-1697) and Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729-1799)- disproved the Theory of Spontaneous Generation [di ko sure kung kasama] D. (1831) Robert Brown- stated that all cells contain a fundamental structure called the nucleus that contains the DNA (he just followed up yung kay Anton van L. ) E. (1835) Felix Dujardin –discovered an internal substance that is colloidal in structure he called it the Sarcode or cytoplasm. F. (1838) Matthias Schleiden (sa plants) Theodore Schwann ( sa animals)- Matthias Schleiden stated that all plants are composed of cell. After a year, Schwann concluded that all animals are made up of cells G. (1858)- Rudolph Virchow- stated that all cells come from pre-existing cells

III. Cell theory
A. All living things are made up of cells
B. All living things come from pre-existing cells by the process of cell division C. Cells are the basic unit of life.

IV. Functions inside the cell
A. Nutrition- obtain food molecules
B. Digestion- food particles are broken down
C. Absorption- cells absorb water and materials
D. Biosynthesis- organize chemicals to form substances
E. Excretion- wastes are eliminated
F. Locomotion- movement of cells
G. Reproduction (through cell division)- process by which cell copies and replicates DNA H. Respiration- breaking down food to produce energy for other cell function I. Response to Stimulus

V. Parts and Functions of the cell
Parts
Structure
Function
Bacteria/Plant/Animal
Drawing
A. Cell Membrane
Double later of phospholipid layer (phosphate and lipid group)

*Since protein and carbohydrates cannot go through the cell membrane there are Protein Receptor and Carbohydrates Receptor [ATA] -protects the cell
-boundary between the cell and its environment
-gives form and shape to the cell
-connects the cell to another
-locomotion
All

B. Cytoplasm
-Jellylike material
-colorless to translucent
- where the organelles are suspended
- where one process of cell respiration happens
All

C. Organelles

1.
Mitochondria
-Rod shaped organelle that has two parts: matrix and cristae - Where ATP is produced
-powerhouse
-where cellular respiration occurs
Plant and Animal cell only

2. Endoplasmic Reticulum

a. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
b. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
-long strands of membrane that connects the nucleus to the plasma - has ribosomes attached to it

-Has no ribosomes

-protein synthesis

-lipid synthesis

Plant and Animal Cell only

3. Golgi Apparatus
Series of vesicles that are membrane bound
-Where the proteins and lipids are packaged for distribution

Plant and animal cell only

4. Vacuoles
Fluid filled cavity that are membrane bound

*just in case na ipa-label yung parts sa exam, mas malaki yung vacuoles kaysa sa lysosomes. Where food and water are stored for future use
Plant and animal cell only

5. Lysosomes
Membrane bound organelle that is full of hydrolytic enzymes Causes apoptosis or cell death
Plant and animal cell only

6. Cytoskeleton
Consists of microtubules in a complex...
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