Biology Final Review

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BIO FINAL

Cells
label organelles (nucleous, dna, chromatid, robosomes ,proteins in rough er in ribosomes stroma is liquid in between thylacoid membrane
Chemestry
Know essential elements for plants and animals.
PH= the negative log of H+ ion concentration in water.
Equation. Subtract from 14
Mitosis
divides the nucleous
4 phases:
prophase: chromosomes condense
metatphase: line up on eqator
anaphase: pull apart
telephases: nuclear membrane forming.
2 daughter cells
46 chromosomes in parent cell, > 2 daughter cells (46 chromosome each) Interphase= cell grows, DNA duplicates chromosomes, cell prepares for division Meiosis
1 parent cell > 4 daughter cells (23 chromosomes each)
gametes= sperm/egg
zygote= when sperm and egg meet ( end up with 46 chromosomes) prophase 1 – crossing over
metaphase 1- chromosome shuffling
DNA
made up of nucleotides. (4 nucleotides Adenine, Guanin, Cytosine, Thymine) AT, GC pair sugar: deoxyribose
nitrogen containing base
phosphate group
Dna has 2 strands of nucleotides held by hydrogen bonds
RNA (diffrences from DNA)
sugar : Ribose
Uracil in place of thymine
single strand
temporary storage
genome= total genetic makeup
Gene=
Phenotype= characteristics (what u look like)
Alleses= 2 genes that code for the same trait
homologes= same chromosomes
Photsynthesis
6co2+ 6H2O Light> C6H12O6 + 6CO2
Light independent reaction cycle
takes sunlight and converts it to ATP
Dark reaction : Co2- aka calvin benson cycle.
2 things essential = oxygen and glucose
both cycles occur in chloraplast :Light = thylacoid membrane Dark = in stroma
Respiration
- C6H12O6 + 6O2 >6CO2 + 6H2O + energy
Glycolysis: occurs in Cytoplasm. 2 ATP's produced
Krebs cycle – aka citric acid cycle. Occurs in Mitochondria. 2 ATP produces Electron transfer phosphorylations: occurs in Mitochondria. 32 ATP's...
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