The Immune System: Immune System Overview
1.Pathogens are classified according to their size and where they are located in the body. List the five types of pathogens from largest to smallest: • __________________________• __________________________ • __________________________• __________________________ • __________________________
2.Which type of pathogen is always intracellular? ________________ Which type of pathogen is always extracellular? ________________ 3.Name the three main lines of defense and give an example of each: |Line of defense |Example | | | | | | | | | |
4.When the surface barriers (innate external defenses) are penetrated, what is the next line of defense? ___________________________ 5.This defense mechanism (named in question 6) identifies enemies by recognizing ____________ unique to the pathogens. When they are overwhelmed, they secrete __________________ to mobilize the adaptive defenses. 6.Name the four key ways adaptive defenses differ from innate defenses: • __________________________• __________________________ • __________________________• __________________________ 7.B and T lymphocytes recognize pathogens by binding to them. What the lymphocyte recognizes is called the __________________ found on the antigen. 9.Specific B cells called _________ cells secrete ______________, which bind to the antigens. Humoral Versus Cellular Immunity
10.____________ immunity is directed against pathogens in the extracellular fluid. This immunity involves ___ lymphocytes. 11.____________ immunity is directed against pathogens within the cells. This immunity involves ___ lymphocytes. 12.Which type of immunity involves antibodies? _______________ 13.Name three circumstances in which the T cells would be activated against body cells: • ____________________________
The Immune System: Anatomy Review
1.Name the two major anatomical parts of the immune system: • ________________________________________
2.Cells of the immune system originate in ___________. These cells are called ______________ when traveling in the blood and are classified according to the shape of their nucleus and colors of their granules when stained. 3–4.List the leukocytes in order of frequency from most to least common. In the second column put their distinct characteristics. | Name of Leukocyte |Description | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
5.Primary lymphoid organs, where B and T cells originate and mature, are the bone marrow and thymus. Fill in the following: Both B and T cells originate from ________________.
The B cells mature in the ___________________.
The T cells mature in the ___________________.
(Hint: This is how they came to be called B and T cells.)
6.Secondary lymphoid organs, where lymphocytes become activated, include the following structures: •...