Biology Exam Q&a

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Biology 110-12
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1.What are the five kingdoms and give a brief description of each kingdom? Answer: Monera- Single celled prokaryotes;bacteria Protista - Mostly single celled eukaryotes; Photoautotrophs (algae) and heterotrophs (protozoa) Fungi-Multicellular eukaryotes that feed by extracellular digestion and absorption Heterotrophs: includes decomposers, many pathogens and parasites Plantae-Multicellular photosynthetic autotrophs producers Animalia- Diverse multicellular heterotrophs Range from sponges to vertebrates 2.Who developed the binomial system of nomenclature (genus and species)? Answer: Carl von Linne. 3.List the levels of classification beginning with kingdom and ending with species. Answer: Kingdom>Phylum>Class>Order>Family>Genus>Species

Chapter 15 and 16
1.How are prokaryotic cells characterized? Explain each in detail. Answer: Cytoplasm; Plasma membrane; Ribosomes; Cell wall composed of peptidoglycan; Glycocalyx – jelly like capsule that helps bacteria attach to a substrate; Flagellum – for locomotion; Pili – help bacteria to attach to other bacteria or surfaces 2.What structures are found in prokaryotic cells? Answer: Ribosomes 3.Give examples of bacteria classified as Archeabacteria and Eubacteria. Answer: Archeabacteria: Methanogens – “methane makers”; Extreme halophiles – “salt lovers”; Extreme thermophiles – “heat lovers” Eubacteria: spirochetes; chlamydias; proteobacteria; Gram-positive bacteria; cyanobacteria 4.What method do prokaryotic cells use to reproduce and what is the end result? Answer: Asexual, Results in two genetically identical daughter cells 5.What is a plasmid? Answer: Self-replicating circle of DNA that has a few genes; Can be passed from one cell to another 6.What two components compose a virus? Answer: Consists of protein wrapped around a nucleic acid core 7.Why is a virus nonliving? Answer: Noncellular infectious agent; Cannot reproduce itself; can only be reproduced using a host cell 8.What are the steps of viral replication? Answer: Virus recognizes and attaches to host cell; Whole virus or genetic material (DNA or RNA) enters host cytoplasm;Viral DNA or RNA directs host to make viral genetic material and protein;Viral nucleic acids and proteins are assembled into new virus particles; New viral particles are released from cell 9.Describe the lytic and lysogenic pathways. Answer: Lytic: Lytic Pathway virus quickly infects cell and causes cell to rupture (lysis), spilling its contents and the virus Lysogenic:Viral genes remain inactive inside host cell; Genes become intergrated in host DNA;Remain inactive until something triggers them to begin destructive cycle; Latent period extends the cycle Viral DNA becomes part of host chromosome for a time 10.What are viroids and prions? Answer: Viroids: Smaller than viruses; Strands or circles of RNA; No protein-coding genes; No protein coat; Cause many plant diseases Prions: Small abnormal, proteins; Linked to human diseases; Kuru Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD); Animal diseases; Scrapie in sheep; Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease) 11.What are the general characteristics of the kingdom Protista? Answer: Simplest Eukaryotes; Mostly single celled but few multicellular 12.List examples of the parasitic and predatory molds. Answer: Chytrids, Phylum Chytridiomycota ; Water Molds, Phylum Oomycota; Cellular Slime Mold, Phylum Acrasiomycota 13.List the animal-like protistans and examples from each category. Answer: Sarcodina - Amoeboid protozoans ; Ciliphora - Ciliated protozoans ; Mastigophora - Animal-like flagellates; Apicomplexa - Parasitic heterotrophs such as the sporozoans 14.What are the sporozoans? Answer: Parasitic ; Complete part of the life cycle inside specific cells of a host organism; Many have elaborate life cycles that require different hosts; Many cause serious human disease 15.List and give examples of the single celled algae. Answer: Euglenoids- Phylum Euglenophyta ;Free-living...
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