Biology 101 Chapters 1-4

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Which of the following lists the terms from simplest to most complex? * cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organism
The smallest unit of life?
* Cell
The process of_________ transforms solar energy into chemical energy. * Photosynthesis
All the chemical reactions that occur in a cell are called?
* Metabolism
All single-celled organisms including archaea and bacteria are prokaryotes? * False, because some Eukaryotes, including Protista are single- celled. Prokaryotes belong to?
* Domain Archaea
Which of the following correctly list the classification categories from least to most inclusive? * species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, domain Which of the following is the most encompassing level of organization? * Ecosystem

Living organisms must constantly take in energy in order to power functions necessary to remain alive. The chemical reactions that involve energy conversion are called? * Metabolism
In science, a theory?
* Encompasses many hypotheses
Bioethics is a branch of biology concerned with?
* The development and consequences of biological technology. The Organization of Life
1. Atoms
2. Molecules
3. Macromolecules
4. Organelles
5. Cells
6. Tissue
7. Organs
8. Organ Systems
9. Organism
10. Population
11. Species
12. Community
13. Ecosystem

Atoms are joined together into complex clusters called?
* Molecules
The most basic level is that of __________, which are groups of similar cells that act as a functional unit. * Tissue
Organ Systems function together to form a _______? -Organism Hydrogen= 1 Electron
If you change the # of protons you change the atom
Positive attracts negative
Ion= Charged Atom
If you dissolve sugar and water you have a mixture.

Polarity-any separation of charge into distinct positive & negative regions. Molecule- group of 2 or more atoms joined by chemical bonds. Compound-Type of molecule that has atoms of more than one element. Mixture- intermingling of two or more types of molecules

The type of bond that would form from the transfer of an electron from one atom to another, as depicted in the figure, is a? * Ionic

1. A covalent bond occurs when electrons are shared between two atoms to complete their octet.

2. A water molecule, as shown here, is polar because of unequal sharing of electrons.

3. An atom's outermost electron shell determines it's chemical reactivity.

4. Humans store their polysaccharides in the form of glycogen.

5. A molecule is said to be organic if it contains carbon and hydrogen atoms.

Why do cells need buffering agents?
* Too minimize the changes in pH of their internal environment How does DNA differ from RNA?
* DNA is comprised of a double strand, RNA is a single strand. The principle role for sugars in living things is
* for creating energy

The pH scale measures how acidic or basic a substance is. The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14. A pH of 7 is neutral. A pH less than 7 is acidic. A pH greater than 7 is basic.

Orbital
Arraigned into energy levels (shells)
First level- One orbital can hold 2 electrons
Second Level-4 Orbitals can hold 8 electrons
Third Level- 4 Orbitals can hold 8 electrons|
|

pH
- Blood has a pH of 7.35-7.45 -Urination removes H+ - Exhaling removes CO2

Monomers- Smaller building block molecules

Polymers- Larger units made of monomers

Functional Groups - Bonded carbon with other groups of molecules.

Carbohydrates- Polymers made of sugar monomers (often Glucose)

4 Categories of Macromolecules - Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic acids.

Hydrolysis- Way of separating monomers - Breaking by adding water.

Glucose + fructose = Sucrose (Table Sugar)

Hydrophilic- Water loving (carbohydrates)

Hydrophobic- insoluble in water (lipids)

Nucleotides- Monomer units of nucleic acids

Polypeptide- Molecule consisting of many amino acids peptide bonded to each other....
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