Biochemical Foundations of Human Life

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Biochemistry Exam I
Terminology
Boiling point is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid. At this temperature the liquid phase changes into the gaseous phase (also a colligative property) Melting point is the temperature at which the solid and liquid phases are in equilibrium. At this temperature the solid state changes into a liquid phase (also a colligative property) Specific heat is the amount of energy (in joules or calories) needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a pure substance by 1 degree Celsius Surface tension is a contractive tendency of the surface of a liquid that allows it to resist an external force Dielectric constant is the diminishing of the attraction of the ions for one another by the solvent Osmotic pressure is the pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of water across a semipermeable membrane Hypotonic refers to less solute concentrations. These conditions will cause a net influx of water into the cells causing the cells to burst or lyse Hypertonic refers to greater solute concentrations. These conditions will cause a net outflow of water from the cell causing the cells to shrivel Heat – the atoms increase in energy causing vibrations within the protein that disrupt 2, 3, and 4 structure Organic solvents – turns the protein structure inside-out as hydrophilic AAs move in and hydrophobic AAs move out toward the nonpolar solvent Heavy metals – positively charged metals do oxidation reduction reactions with the SH groups of cysteine pH change- changes the amines and COOH AAs to destroy ionic bonding

| Amino acids| Helix| Protofilament|
α-Keratin| Aliphatic (hydrophobic)| R-handed| L-handed4(2chains)| β-Keratin & Fibroin| Every other AA glycine| β-sheets| -| Collagen| Gly-X-Y Hydroxyproline/lysine| L-handed| R-handed(3chains)|

Laboratory Techniques
Electrophoresis - is the movement of charged solutes in...
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