Bio Objectives for Exam 2

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Objectives for Lecture 9
Know the difference in resolution and magnification between light and electron microscopes. Understand the process of cell fractionation based on centrifugation and know what the purpose of cell fractionation is. Know what the differences in cell structure are between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells Know that most eukaryotic cells are between 10-100 m in diameter, whereas most prokaryotic cells are about 1 m in diameter. Know the following terms, plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, cell wall, ribosomes, chromosomes. Know the general structure and function are of the following cellular structures and organelles: plasma membrane, nucleus, ribosomes, ER (rough and smooth), Golgi, lysosomes, mitochondria, and chloroplasts. Be able to identify each of these organelles in photographs or drawings of cells. Understand that the pathway for the flow of materials to the cell surface is from ER to the Golgi, to Golgi vesicles, to the plasma membrane Know that cell shape and cellular movements are mediated by the cytoskeleton, which is composed of microtubules (tubulin protein), microfilaments (actin protein), and intermediate filaments (keratin protein) Know the major structural differences between animal and plant cells.

Lecture 10
Be able to describe the structure of biological membranes (lipid bilayers + membrane proteins). Be able to list the functions of membrane proteins (transport, surface for chemical reactions, hormone perception, cell-to-cell attachment, cell-cell recognition, attachment points of cytoskeleton and extracellular proteins to the membrane). Know that biological membranes are semipermeable (more permeable to some solutes than others) and know how the size, polarity, and charge affects the permeability of solutes through membranes. Understand the terms passive transport and diffusion, and osmosis. Be able to make predictions about the direction that solutes or water will move if given the concentrations of solutes across a membrane. Be able to correctly use the terms hypotonic, isotonic and hypertonic.

Lecture 11
Be able to explain the difference between simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion. Know that except for gasses, like O2, N2, and CO2, nearly all substances that diffuse across cell membranes move by facilitated diffusion through channels or carriers. Know that channels and carriers are highly specific for the molecules or ions they transport and they are regulated. Know what moves through the channel aquaporin.

Understand that active transport is transport of a substance against its chemical (or electrochemical) gradient and that active transport requires the input of energy (usually in the form of ATP). Proteins that actively transport ions are often called ion pumps). Know that the Na/K pump is the main ion pump in animal cell membranes, that it pumps 3 NA+ out and 2 K+ in. Other organisms (bacteria, plants, fungi) mostly use proton pumps (H+ is pumped out) Understand that the active pumping of ions creates both a chemical gradient of the pumped ion and a membrane voltage (membrane potential). Know that most cells have a membrane potential of about -100 mV (inside negative) and understand the concept of the electrochemical gradient. Understand that the electrochemical gradient of the pumped ion can be coupled to the movement of other substances by means of cotransport. Know what endocytosis is and what types of substances are taken up by phagocytosis, pinocytosis, and receptor-mediated endocytosis

Lecture 12 Metabolism and Energy
Be able to define metabolism and know the difference catabolism, and anabolism and whether they consist of energy generating or consuming reactions Know the difference between potential and kinetic energy, and know that for most situations in biology potential energy is the energy in chemical bonds. Cleaving those bonds releases that energy, which can be used to do work (drive a...
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