Bio Exam Study Guide

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Chapter 17
Louis Pasteur's experiment illustrated that:
microbes will not grow in a nutrient broth that has been sterilized unless air is allowed to enter the vessel through an opening. Living organisms can spontaneously generate from nonliving matter. True or False? False

The scientists usually given credit for disproving the theory of spontaneous generation of bacteria are: Tyndall & Pasteur
Miller and Urey's experiments attempting to recreate the prebiotic environment produced a rich mixture of complex organic chemicals from simple chemicals. True or False? True
Miller and Urey's experiments attempting to recreate the prebiotic environment produced prokaryotic cells. True or False? False
The theory that life began in the distant past from nonliving molecules that became able to reproduce themselves is called: Prebiotic evolution
Some scientists theorize that early life was RNA-based. True or False? True
Miller and Urey's experiments to simulate prebiotic evolution produced: a rich mixture of organic molecules
Some RNA molecules have been discovered that can:
Act as enzymes.
RNA molecules that function as enzymes:
Are called Ribozymes
The outer boundaries of laboratory-created vesicles are most similar to: Cell membranes
The scenario of prebiotic evolution leading to the origin of life on Earth is plausible because: there was a vast period of time for simple chemicals to evolve into complex cells. One theory holds that the first self-replicating molecules were: RNA

The experiments that demonstrated that meat does not spontaneously generate maggots were conducted by: Francisco Redi
RNA can act like an enzyme. True or False?
True
Organisms that have complex internal membranes are prokaryotic. True or False? False
Mitochondria contain their own DNA, separate from that of the rest of the cell. True or False? False
Which is the correct series of events in the evolution of life on Earth? photosynthesis → O2 → aerobic metabolism
Based on current knowledge about the conditions of the early Earth, the first organisms were most likely: Anaerobic Prokaryotes
The oxygen that arose in early Earth's atmosphere was likely produced by organisms that were very similar to modern: Cyanobacteria
If the early Earth's atmosphere contained little or no O2, then where did most of the O2 in our modern atmosphere come from? Photosynthesis
The earliest photosynthetic organisms obtained hydrogen from: Hydrogen Sulfide
The endosymbiotic hypothesis accounts for the origin of which cell structure? Chloroplast
An anaerobic prokaryote engulfs a prokaryote capable of using oxygen to produce energy. The anaerobe could now carry on: Aerobic metabolism
The proposal that certain eukaryotic cell structures may have evolved from a prokaryotic symbiosis is called the: Endosymbiont hypothesis
Exoskeletons provided an evolutionary advantage to organisms by: increasing their mobility and protecting them from predation.

Eggs and scales enabled reptiles to dominate land during the Permian period. True or False? True
One advantage that enabled the seed plants to greatly surpass the ferns in colonizing the land was the evolution of: Sex without swimming sperm
To survive successfully on land, plants needed to develop:
Methods to prevent water loss
Early land plants required adaptations that:
Aided reproduction, decrease water loss, helped support the plant (all of the above) The first land plants were restricted to moist, marshy environments because of: Reproductive cell requirements
The largest mass extinction event of all time occurred at the end of the: Permian period
Chapter 18
What is the second of the two names in an organism's scientific name? Species
The science of reconstructing an organism's evolutionary history is called systematics. True or False? False
A mountain lion, or puma, has the scientific name Felis concolor. Felis is the: Genus
A house cat has the scientific name Felis catus. The term "catus" is the:...
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