These topics will be on the exam.
▪ What are the tenets of cell theory?
• Cells are the basic structural and physiological units of all living organisms.
• Cells are both distinct entities and building blocks of more complex organisms.
• All living organisms are composed of one or more cells, Cells are the basic units of structure and function in an organism, and Cells come only from the reproduction of existing cells. OR
• All cells come from preexisting cells.
• All cells are similar in chemical composition.
• Most of the chemical reactions of life occur in aqueous solution within cells.
• Complete sets of genetic information are replicated and passed on during cell division.
• Viruses lack cellular structure but remain dependent on cellular organisms.
▪ What is homeostasis?
• The maintenance of a steady state, such as a constant temperature or a stable social structure, by means of physiological or behavioral feedback responses ▪ Know the levels of organization of life from the lowest to the highest levels Atoms>molecules>organells>cells>tissues>organs>organisms/individuals>populations>communities>ecosystems ▪ Genome distance and common ancestors
Genome: The complete DNA sequence for a particular organism or individual ▪ What are the 3 domains?
1)archaea ,bacteria, species
▪ Heterotrophs vs. autotrophs
Heterotrophs: (humans) An organism that requires preformed organic molecules as food Autotrophs: (plants) An organism that is capable of living exclusively on inorganic materials, water, and some energy source such as sunlight (photoautotrophs) or chemically reduced matter ▪ What does the null hypothesis say and how does that relate to control and experimental group outcomes? ▪ Know how to determine the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in an atom Atomic # = # of protons
Electrons are the same as protons
Atomic#-Atomic mass= neutrons.
▪ What is an isotope? What is an isomer?
Isotope: same # of protons but different # neutrons
Isomer: Molecules consisting of the same numbers and kinds of atoms, but differing in the bonding patterns by which the atoms are held together. ▪ Know the differences between the various kinds of bonds, i.e., covalent bonds, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and van der Waals forces Covalent Bond: 2 atoms sharing 1 or more pairs of electrons (strongest bond) Ionic Bond: attraction of opposite charged ions (NaCl)
Hydrogen Bond: weak attraction shared between 2 electronegative atoms. Van der Waals: Weak attractions between atoms resulting from the interaction of the electrons of one atom with the nucleus of another. This type of attraction is about one-fourth as strong as a hydrogen bond. ▪ How many electrons are in the first and second shells? Be able to determine how many electrons are in the outer shell 1st shell: 2 max
2nd shell: 8 max
3rd shell: 16
What kind of bond is water made from? Partial positive and negative charges of water Hydrogen & oxygen (h2o)
▪ What happens to salt when it is placed in water?
▪ Cohesion vs. adhesion
Cohesion-the tendency of molecules to stick together
▪ Solutions, solvents, and solutes
Solutions: A substance that is dissolved in a liquid (solvent) to form a solution. Solvents: Liquid in which a substance (solute) is dissolved to form a solution Solutes: A substance that is dissolved in a liquid (solvent) to form a solution ▪ Definitions of acids and bases
Acids: A substance that can release a proton in solution.
Base: A substance that can accept a hydrogen ion in solution ▪ How are hydrogen ion concentration and pH related?
▪ What do buffers do?
A substance that can transiently accept or release hydrogen ions and thereby resist changes in pH. ▪ Know the building blocks or monomers of...