Biology Study Guide

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Name: Joshua Beh Date: 5/30/12 Per. 3

Biology Semester 2 Final Study Guide 2012

Ch. 13.
1. Define population
- Consists of all the individuals of a species that live in a specific geographical area and can interbreed. 2. Define natural selection.
- The differential rate of reproduction.
3. Explain how gradualism and punctuated equilibrium relate to evolution. - Both involve the species evolving either over a long period of time or rapidly. 4. What does a paleontologist do?
- Scientists who study fossils.
Ch. 14.
5. Define binomial nomenclature.
- Linnaeus’s two-word system for naming organisms.

6. Define taxonomy.
- The science of naming and classifying organisms.

7. The basic (smallest) biological unit in the Linnaean system of classification is the Species.

8. What is an advantage of our scientific naming system?
- It’s more specific and descriptive.

Ch. 16.
9. Define community.
- The many different species that live together in a habitat.

10. Define habitat.
- The place where a particular population of a species lives.

11. Ecology is the study of the interactions of living organisms with one another.

12. What does an ecosystem consist of?
- A community and all the physical aspects of its habitat.

13. Compare examples of abiotic and biotic factors.
- Abiotic is the physical aspects of a habitat and biotic is the organisms in a habitat.

14. Define succession.
- A somewhat regular progression of species replacement.

15. When an organism dies, what will most likely happen to the nutrients in its body? - The nutrients are released back into the environment to be recycled by other organisms.

16. Fungi are decomposers in a food web.

17. Why are food webs more commonplace than food chains?
- In most ecosystems, energy does not flow in straight paths.

18. Give examples of fossil fuels.
- Coal, oil, and natural gases.
Ch. 17.
19. Give an example of commensalism.
- A symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped.

20. Give an example of competition.
- When 2 species use the same resource.

21. Give an example of parasitism.
- One organism feeds on and usually lives on another organism.

22. Give an example of mutualism.
- A symbiotic relationship in which both participating species benefit.

23. A tick feeding on a human is an example of parasitism.

24. Define competition.
- When 2 species use the same resource.

25. Define biome.
- A major biological community that occurs over a large area of land.

26. Describe ecosystems near the equator.
- A tropical rainforest.

27. Which biome is characterized by evergreen trees and mammals such as moose, bears, and lynx? - A taiga.

28. Why are there few large trees in the tundra?
- Because of the permafrost.

29. Herds of grazing animals are most likely to be found in a temperate grassland biome.

30. Define plankton and relate them to food chains/webs.
- Composed of bacteria, algae, fish larvae, and many small invertebrate animals.

31. Almost all of the Earth’s surface water is contained in the ocean.

Ch. 18
32. A community that is downwind from a power plant that burns high-sulfur coal might experience what? - Acid rain.

33. How does ozone in the atmosphere protect us?
- It protects us from ultraviolet radiation.

34. The heat-trapping ability of some gases in the atmosphere can be compared to the greenhouse effect.

35. What might increase the greenhouse effect?
- CO2

36. Define renewable sources of energy.
- Sunlight, rain and wind.

Ch. 20.
37. Compare viruses to living things.
- Viruses infect living things with diseases. They can only reproduce in a living host.

38. Define viruses.
- Segments of nucleic acids contained in a protein coat.

39. A typical virus consists of an envelope & a capsid.

40. Define...
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