Behaviorism & Cognitive Psychology

Topics: Psychology, Cognitive science, Educational psychology Pages: 5 (675 words) Published: July 15, 2014
In the Name of God

Subject:

An Introduction to Educational Psychology:
Behaviourism & Cognitive Psychology

March 6th, 2014

1.1 Introduction
First chapter provide a brief introduction to:
1. The discipline of educational psychology
2. Important influences on the development of
psychological ideas and theories related to the
process of education
3. And finally relevance of these ideas to
teaching and learning a foreign language

1.2 Educational
Psychology
Kaplan (1990) describes it as:
The application of psychology to education by
focusing on the developments, evaluation and
application of theories and principles of learning
and instruction that can enhance lifelong learning.
BUT THERE IS A LIMITATION IN HERE:
Although learning is a part of education, it has
consider both the same.

1.3 Approaches to
Educational Psychology
Positivist school
Scientific
method

Behaviorism

Cognitive
psychology

1.4 The Positivist School
 Psychologist starts to understand and predict humans behavior instead of studying his mind
 They searched to find the principles of human learning by checking the bahaviour of animals, under exactly defined
conditions.
“Logical Positivism”
 They accept only experimental data as evidence, so thought and feeling of human was something inaccessible, and there
for were not investigated!

1.4.1 Behaviourism
Russian Pavlov:
 S-R (Stimulus-Response) theory or “Classical
Conditioning”
 It was considered that all human bahaviour
could be explained in terms of the way in which
simple S-R connections were built up.
PROBLEM:
It could not consider enormous range of human
action.

1.4.2 B. F. Skinner
 Founder of Modern Behaviourism
 He constructed a system of principles to account for
human bahaviour in strictly observable terms.
 Learning as a result of environment VS Learning as
genetic factor
notion of operants
emphasizing on reinforcement
OPERANT CONDITIONING:

an individual responds to a stimulus by behaving in a
particular way.

1.4.2 B. F. Skinner
Skinner paid more attention to instruction in
education and suggested:
 Teachers should make clear what is to be taught
 Tasks should be broken down into small, continues
steps
 Students should be encouraged to work at their
own pace by means of individualized learning
programs
 Learning should be ‘programmed’ by connecting
the above procedures + immediate positive
reinforcement

SOME POINTS
• is seen as a behavior to be taught
Language

Learning a
language

• acquiring a set of appropriate mechanical
habits

Teachers role

• developing learners good habits, by
means of pattern drills and memorization

1.5 Cognitive Psychology
Human Thoughts

• It concerns with the way in which human mind thinks and learns • Therefore it deals with mental process involved in learning and cognition • Here learner is seen as an active participant in learning process

Information theories, consider brain as a complex computer / i.e. artificial intelligence system;its models of memory and reading process
Constructivism movement, Jean Piaget, concerned with ways in which individuals come to make their own sense of the world.

1.5.1 Information Process
At the very heart of cognitive
psychology is the idea of information
processing concerned with:
The way in which people take in
information

Process information

Act upon information

1.5.1 Information Process
 BASIC ASSUMPTIONS
1. Attention: Is the cognitive process of selectively concentrating on one aspect of the environment while ignoring other things
2. Perception: Is the organization of sensory information in order to represent and understand the environment.
3. Memory: It is involved in processing vast amounts of information. This information takes many different forms, e.g. images, sounds or meaning.

• Construct models or scripts to try to account for the way in which the human mind works...
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