Becoming Parents and Carers

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9.3 HSC Core: Parenting and Caring

Becoming parents and carers
Parent: individual who cares for an infant from birth until independence. Carer: individual who takes on role of looking after someone who is ill or dependent.

Being a parent or carer is one of them most demanding jobs there is. Children need to learn how to be strong, to develop the ability to make decisions, and be responsible and trustworthy. They should learn how to love and be loved, to care about people and show respect for families and others.

Biological parents: Are the people who produce and provide the genetic material for a child. Begins at the moment of conception. •Pregnancy: result of intercourse or artificial insemination. Lasts 38-40 weeks. Natural birth or by caesarean section can happen. -Planned: Willfully trying to have a baby

-Unplanned: unplanned pregnancy usually occurs when you have unprotected sexual intercourse example rape/abuse. •IVF and GIFT: when pregnancy doesn’t occur naturally. Involves eggs being removed, mixed with semen then re-implanted into the uterus. GIFT (gamete intra-fallopian transfer) involves the egg and sperm transferred into the woman so conception occurs inside the body.

Social parents: Individuals who care for a child without providing genetic material. These parents take on the responsibilities of being a parent and may face particular difficulties due to the nature of their relationship with the child. •Adoption: alternative for parents who cannot conceive a child. But there are few babies/children available and long waiting lists. It is a legal procedure where the child is no longer considered part of their biological family. Parents are required to show that they can meet the needs of the child. Potential parents motivation, reputation, personal and marital stability, state of health are all assessed. It requires a lot of energy and the willingness and ability to give the child a great deal of time, love and care. •Fostering: temporary arrangement from a few days to a few years. Coordinated by Department of Community Services. One of the hardest forms of parenting. Child may be socially, psychologically or physically scarred from previous arrangements. Foster parents have day-to-day responsibilities for child but no legal right. •Step parenting: when a man or woman marries or forms a de facto relationship with a partner who has children from a previous relationship, they become a step parent. May become alternative role model, but may find it hard to be accepted. Have no legal responsibilities for the child but can fulfill all parenting requirements. •Surrogacy: woman agrees to conceive, carry out and give birth to a child then give the child to the couple. Different ways- use of doner eggs and sperm. Controversial form of parenting. Most cases the surrogant mother has legal rights over the child.

Carer relationships: each carer situation is unique. Cares can be professionals, parents, partners, brothers, sisters, friends, or children of any age. May assist an individual in daily tasks such as feeding, bathing, dressing, toileting, transportation, organisation of finances, emotional support, or administering medication. May or may not live with the person they care for. May or may not be paid. Usually a relative. Women are traditionally seen as primary caregiver, but this is slowly changing. Carers meet the needs of the individual, provide stability and access to family and social networks etc. can offer opportunity for personal growth and development of skills but also frustration and distress. •Voluntary carers: 1 in 5 households care for family member of friends with a disability, mental illness, chronic condition or aged. Saves the Australian community $16billion a year. They usually take on the role due to family responsibility, to provide better care than an institution and/or emotional obligations. Many carers are among the poorest, most disadvantaged members of the...
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