Assignment 01

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Abstract
In this IT Era, most of people adopt to internet and most of the information systems to make their lives comfortable. According to the high demand and competition of the IT field, software, hardware and IS are released day by day. When developing a software/ hardware/ IS what are the procedures need to follow?, how it is possible to make that more reliable? There are some methodologies need to follow up to get best outcome with development projects, this paper presents those methodologies and some laws related to them. Keywords: Waterfall Methodology, Prototyping Methodology, Glass’ law, Boehm’s first law, Boehm’s second law, Davi’s law, Moore’s law 1.INTRODUCTION

This document presents about methodologies for development projects and few lows which are related to them. More over this presents some explanations of Waterfall methodology and Prototyping methodology as well Glass’s law, Boehm’s first and second law, Davi’s law and Moore’s law with examples. Furthermore this will discuss on appropriateness of using those laws and those methodologies with real time examples.

2.DESCRIPTION OF FOUR LAWS
2.1.Glass’ Law: “Requirement deficiencies are the prime source of project failures.” Glass’ Law is talking about the lack of requirement gathering/ analysing of a project. Requirements determine the properties of a project and all processes are based on the requirement. Moreover requirements are the objectives that must be met in any project. Incomplete, improper or erroneous requirement causes most project failure and the reason after that are different needs of various user groups of people. Practically requirements are not perfect and these problems are repeating by generation to generation and will not disappear with the technological development. For an example, baggage handling system for the Denver airport caused requirement deficiencies. This project failed because they took decisions underestimating complexity of the project involved. That was the largest baggage handling system ever attempted, but on the opening day the system was only a shadow of original. There was two companies worked to build the airport and for developing bag handling system, the worst thing was the lack of communication among two teams. This failure system caused to delay opening airport by 16 months and there was the construction loan cost of Denver $1.1M per day throughout the delay.(Calleam Consulting Ltd., 2008)

2.2.Boehm’s first law: “Errors are most frequent during the requirements and design activities and are the more expensive the later they are removed.” Every project runs under the software development life cycle (SDLC). If occur any error in late stage it results to reconsider all of the previous stages and it will be expensive and fail to complete project at expected time. There can be requirement errors and design errors, but requirement errors are more serious than the design errors hence the requirement error can direct the project on a total different way. However errors are unavoidable, so the best way of achieving success projects is to detect errors in early stages and prevent them quickly. For example, Boehm has done error analysis and he said, 60-70 precent of all errors was design or requirement errors. Similar relationship of design and implementation errors perceived in 1984 by Basili and Perricone, in an aerospace application design and at the same time another statistic showed that the cost of errors are the higher the longer they stay in a product.(Enders & Rombach, 2003)

2.3.Boehm’s second law: “Prototyping (significantly) reduces requirement and design errors, especially for user interfaces.” Prototyping is the best remedy to prevent the requirement errors. For most of the systems prototyping is appropriate hence it reduce the gap between requirements and implementation. Prototyping helps to reduce tension among developers and users, to extend confidence among the team and to educate...
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