Evolution de cette zone pacifique, dès origines jusqu’à la 2ème Guerre Mondiale.
Pacific region : APEC, Asia, Australia, New Zealand, Aborigines, surf, beaches, kangaroos, Islands, Hawaii (-> Pearl Harbor), biggest ocean in the world. Pacific (zone, area) ocean, Asia pacific, pacific rim countries. Origin of the name ‘Pacific’: 1521 Magellan coined the word, he thought the ocean was calm that came as a mistake. Ancient maps: Pacific Ocean/ south sea Bougainville, la Perouse, James Cook: famous explorers.
This part of the world was discovered lately.
In the middle ages, the world was represented in a TO map. Asia, Europe, Africa. Terrarum Orbis (Latin words)
For a long time, it was considered as a vacuum: emptiness. It represents 1/3 of the surface of the earth, mainly water. The Pacific is a non entity.
2 geographers managed to divide this region into 4:
* Pacific basin (it encompasses everything, enormous zone, there’s no center. * Asia-pacific (Asia, Australia)
* Oceania (its’ the 5th continent, surrounded by water. Considered as an invisible continent. Australia, New Guinea, New Zealand, but it’s difficult to chart, to give visibility to the small islands. Australia is 14x the size of France, but Tuvalu (an island) is 23 km². Kiribati is 800 km² but its EEZ is 35 billion². EEZ Exclusive Economic Zone= sea zone. * South pacific: all the small islands you can fin in the Pacific Ocean, a very residual place. Mid 19th century, decided to focus on cultural and anthropological criteria.
* Micronesia (very small islands, more than 2 000 islands. Only 100 are inhabitable. Common characteristics: had been under colonial control for a very long time) * Melanesia (islands of black people. Ex: papou New Guinea… share the same cultural features. Area full of natural resources, raw materials : gold and copper) * Polynesia (numerous islands, cultural features, lighter skin color. Can still find territories: ex: French Polynesia, Easter Island (chili), Pitcairn (Great Britain)…) * Australia (doesn’t belong to other divisions. Immensity of the territory and because it was colonized and is developed. Nesos (Greek word) means island
Define the Pacific using other parameters:
Economic approach => exchanges
* WestEast (Japan/South Korea/China->US/Canada)
* SouthNorth (Japan/South Korea/China->ASEAN countries/Australia OZ and New Zealand NZ * Canada/USASEAN/Australia/New Zealand
Other parameters: strategic parameter
7 theaters in the pacific:
* countries with nuclear dissuasion (central zone, zone of possible conflicts) = US 1 , Japan 2 , Russia, North Korea * close periphery=south east Asia 3 , central America 4
* remote periphery=Australia 5 ->Antarctica 6
* Oceania 7=battlefield in 2nd world war, however today it plays a modest role today. Last parameter: history = the Pacific of when?
Before & after James Cook = no identity, nations didn’t know they were part of pacific entity before & after WW1
““decolonization & the cold war
Economic // economical
economic = adjective to anything related to the field of economy. Economical = save money
1st important historical period: before & after James Cook: no pacific entity. Problem of distance. Sporadic contact in a vertical line: Asia, Papua new-guinea to northern part of Australia. James Cook + all the other European explorations => 18th century: century of enlightenment (siècle des Lumières). Thanks to that, the pacific region entered the geopolitical field Century of enlightenment:
- philosophical force. Europe became aware of the pacific thanks to famous authors Diderot, Voltaire… -economic force. Integration of the Pacific into the world market. Why? 18th century corresponds to industrialization -> in the UK you had a surplus of production/manufactured goods, accumulation of capital. -> Need to look for other market, = investment But also...