Apush Chapter 29 Study Guide

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1. Supreme Court’s Rule of Reason- The United States Supreme Court created the Rule of Reason as the basic principle in regards to anti-trust cases. It was created as a result of the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey v the United States. The government tried Standard Oil due to violation of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. They claimed it had used its powers to prevent other oil companies from being created. After this, it became a principle of the time period, on a case by case basis to determine if a company was being just. 2. Educational and political career of Woodrow Wilson (chronology) and origins- Once his father became a minister of the First Presbyterian Church, the family moved to Augusta, Georgia. In 1870, his family moved to Columbia, South Carolina, and then to Wilmington, North Carolina, in 1874. Later in life, Dr. Woodrow Wilson, a mild conservative turned militant progressive. Beginning professional life as an academic lecturer, in 1902 he became the president of Princeton University. He entered politics in 1910 when New Jersey bosses, needing a candidate for governorship, offered him the cherished nomination. To their utter dismay, Wilson was able to wage a passionate reform campaign in which he promised the return of the state government to the people. Once governor, he thrived. 3. Democratic Platform in 1912-In 1912, the Democrats nominated Dr. Woodrow Wilson, a once-mild conservative turned progressive on the 46th ballot. The Democratic ticket would run under a platform named, “New Freedom” which would include several progressive reforms. 4. Woodrow Wilson’s “New Freedom” program vs Roosevelt’s “New Nationalism”- Roosevelt’s New Nationalism was inspired by Herbert Croly’s The Promise of American life. It stated that the government should control the bad trusts while leaving the good trusts free and alone to operate). Wilson’s opposing policy referred to as the “New Freedom” program stated that all trusts should be broken up (favoring small enterprise). 5. Significance of 1912 election- The Republican party was split, part the Progressives and part the Republican’s. As a result, Woodrow Wilson easily won. However, surprisingly the Democrats did not receive the majority of the popular votes. It has been stated that if TR did not participate in the election, the Republicans would have won. Between TR and Taft their popular totals exceeded that of Wilsons. The election also offered the voters a decision not merely of policies but of political and economic philosophies. 6. Election of 1912 candidates and their political parties- Woodrow Wilson was nominated by the Democrats. While Theodore Roosevelt got the Progressive nomination. Taft was another, less popular candidate of the election, however he received the Republican nomination. 7. Philosophies that dominated that election of 1912-Roosevelt, in addition to campaigning for his “New Nationalism” program also campaigned for women’s suffrage and a broad program of social welfare, including minimum-wage laws and social insurance. While Wilson, also in addition to his program, shunned social welfare proposals and pinned their economic faith on competition. 8. Underwood Tariff Bill (how was it presented to congress)-In order to tackle the tariff, Wilson decided to create the Underwood Tariff of 1913. It reduced import fees (40%-25%) and enacted a graduated income tax. On October 3, 1913 it was ratified, and was sponsored by Alabama Representative Oscar Underwood. 9. Federal Reserve Act (1913) why was it necessary- The Federal Reserve Act created the Federal Reserve System, with 12 reserve districts that were each able to print their own currency and had their own individual banks. It was necessary because Americas banking system had been very unaffected, and a reform was greatly needed. 10. Clayton Antitrust Act (what did it legalize)-The Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914 lengthened the Sherman Anti-Trust Act’s list of practices,...
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