APWH CH. 5 EQ NOTES
|Question 1: What were the features of Roman society and politics during the Republic? | |Topic Sentence | |Agriculture was the central economic activity in Republic Rome which meant land was the basis of wealth. | |Social status, political privileges, and fundamental values were based off it. | |Heads of wealthy families formed a Senate (Council of Elders) who dominated politics | |7 kings- Romulus, Tarquinais = dictator, Brutus a liberator, and Tarquinais Superbus made the res publica, or republic | |Republic wasn’t a democracy b/c only male citizens could vote, and wealthy people’s votes counted more than commoner votes | |Annual elections for each year for all officers and center of careers were focued on becoming one of 2 consuls who oversaw the Senate and lead| |military missions | |Senate= real power and became hereditary because Senators kept nominating their sons for office | |Served as council, but made increasingly more policy decisions. | |Conflict of Orders- Patricians vs. Plebeians became a fight between the rich wealthy class and the majority peasant class | |Rioted and boycotted city to force Patricians to make important political concessions and were forced to write 12 laws of stone tablets | |protecting the Plebeians from the wealthy class | |Patriarchal family structure- the paterfamilias had supreme power over everyone in the household | |Patron/client relationship mirrors the modern incumbency advantages because the wealthy protect the poor farmers to ensure their votes in the| |next election | |Conclusion | |The Republic of Rome served less as a Republic than an oligarchy of the Senate based on the social principles and political values. | |Question 2: How did society and politics change during the Roman Principate? | |Topic Sentence | |Roman society and politics came under the rule of Octavian Augustus who drastically reformatted Roman society and government. | |Octavian (Julius Caesars grand nephew) decided to change the Roman government structure from a Republic | |Made it an empire, but never used the word king or emperor, but Princeps, which means “first among equals” | |Kept general Senate and lower offices to disguise government | |He allied himself with equites, or the wealthy merchants, and formed the well educated and self assured people in the community | |More strict laws to enforce new government | |Conclusion...
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