AP Psychology

Topics: Psychology, Psychotherapy, Social psychology Pages: 8 (1534 words) Published: October 10, 2013
A.P. Psychology Crib Notes
People:
Wundt- "Father of Psychology": Introspection
Wertheimer- Gestalt Psychology
Titchner- Structuralism
James- Functionalism
Watson- Behaviorism; "Little Albert Study"
Freud- Psychoanalytic; dream analysis; free association; structure of personality; stages of development; defense mechanisms
Milgram- Obedience; Ethics
Broca- left frontal lobe: associated with expressive language Wernike- left frontal lobe: receptive language
Pavlov- Classical conditioning: dogs
Thorndike- Instrumental learning: cats; law of effect
Skinner- Operant conditioning: rats and pigeons; Behaviorist Tolman- Latent learning; cognitive maps
Bandura- Observational learning: Bobo Dolls, Social-Cognitive Theory Ebbinghaus- Forgetting: Decay Model
Chornsky- (Native Theorist) Inherent Existence of sets of cognitive structures Whorf- Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis
Washoe, Sara and Koko- Ape language studies
Jung- Collective unconscious; archetypes; Psychoanalytic
Horney- Basic childhood anxiety; Psychoanalytic
Erickson- Life crisis; psycho-social development; Psychoanalytic Adler- Inferiority Complex; Psychoanalytic
Piaget- Stages of Cognitive Development; Cognitive theorist
Rogers- Client-centered; unconditional positive regard; transactional Analysis Albert Ellis- Rational Emotive Therapy; Cognitive Theorist
Abraham Maslow- Hierarchy of Needs; Humanistic
Sheldon- Somatotyping: endomorph, mesomorph, ectomorph
Binet- I.Q.
Eysenck- Biological model of Personality; Trait-type hierarchy Harlow- Monkey Studies; Attachment
Lorenz- "Survival of the Fittest Theory" and imprinting
Phineus Gage- Railroad spike; damaged (limbic system), emotions/motivational control center
Aaron Beck- Cognitive therapy treating depression
Murray- Need to achieve; TAT
Allport- Trait Approach-cardinal, central, secondary
Cattell- Crystallized Fluid Intelligence
Kelley- Personal Construct Theory
Mishel- Social-learning theory
Gilligan- examined moral differences between boys and girls based on social rules and on ethic of caring and responsibility (turtle and Hare scenario) Approaches:
General:
Behaviorism- Environmental: learning; nurture
Biological- Physiology; genetics; nature
Cognitive- Mental Processes
Psychoanalytical- Unconscious, childhood
Humanistic- Freewill; basis goodness
Multicultural- Sociocultural; role of structure
Gestalt- Emphasizes the organization process in behavior. Focuses on problem of perception
Personality:
Psychoanalytic- People are driven by instincts, largely sexual Behaviorist- Behavior is personality; determined by history of reinforcement Humanistic- People are inherently good, society ruins them, people strive to satisfy a hierarchy of motives toward self-actualization

Cognitive- People are rational and want to predict and control their world, personal constructs help in this process
Biological- Biological factors such as body type or genetics Abnormal:
Psychoanalytic- Emerge from initial psychological conflicts that are unconscious, often arising from childhood trauma
Biomedical- Traceable to physical abnormalities, biochemistry, structural defects Cognitive- Results from unusual ways of thinking, inappropriate belief system Behavioral- Results from faulty contingencies of reinforcement contexts contribute to the development of psychological disorders

Cultural- Variables such as social class, gender and rural-urban contexts contribute to the development of psychological disorders
Humanistic/Existential Model- Results from Failure to fulfill ones potential Treatment:
Biomedical a) ECT
b) Psychosurgery; ablation
c) Chemotherapy
d) Intensive light therapy (S.A.D.)
Psychoanalytic Therapy- Alleviate unconscious conflicts
a) Free association
b) Dream analysis
c) Transference
d) Symptom substitution
Behavior Therapy-application of learning principles
a) Systematic desensitization
1) In vivo desensitization
2) Counter Conditioningb) Flooding- real event
c)...
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