Ap Euro Notes

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AP EUROPEAN HISTORY NOTES- Filled with silliness and inside jokes, enjoy at your leisure :) If something is in [] brackets, it is only written in there for our pleasure, ignore it if you are looking for actual information. • 7: The Renaissance and Reformation- 1350-1600

Key:

UMSUniversal o Georgio Vasari- Rinascita=rebirth (like Renaissance) painter/architect Male Suffrage o Individualism: People sought to receive personal credit for achievements, unlike medieval ideal of “all glory goes to god” Names Ideas o Renaissance: Began in Italian city-states, a cause de invention of the printing press, laid way for Protestant Reformation Events Books/Texts Italy: City states, under HRE (Holy Roman Empire) o For alliances:  old nobility vs. wealthy merchants FIGHT P-Prussia  Popolo: third class, “the people”, wanted own share of wealth/power R-Russia A-Austria  Ciompi Revolts: 1378 Florence, Popolo were revolting [eew], brief period of control over government B-Britain  Milan taken over by signor (which is a tyrant) • Under control of the Condottiero (mercenary) Sforza- Significant because after this, a few wealthy families dominated Venice (e.g. Medici)

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Humanism: Francesco Petrarch (Sonnets), came up with term “Dark Ages”, began to study classical world of rhetoric and literature



Cicero: Important Roman, provided account of collapse of Roman Republic [like Edward Gibbon], invented Ciceronian style: Latin style of writing which humanists followed • [Even though they weren’t in Rome, Humanists did as the Romans do]



Despite being accused of following Pagan culture, Petrarch talked a lot about universality Civic Humanists: Politicians/ diplomats, utilized public education for common good Plato: Studying Greek allowed enlightened people to observe platonic ideals [also, big fat weddings]

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e. g. Platonic view of human potential: observed by Pico della Mirandola, who gave oration on the dignity of man



Castiglione: wrote The Courtier, about what we would call a “renaissance man”: knew languages, classical literature, and artsy stuff

-12009- Daniel Shafrir, Alexander Pinkus, Elizabeth Pinkus



Lorenzo Valla wrote about Donation of Constantine: Document where Constantine took control of the Christian empire, said it was a fake because the word fief was not invented yet.



Analyzed The Vulgate Bible, said Jerome mistranslated from Greek! [silly Jerome]



Leonardo Bruni [like Carla Bruni]- created education for women, though • Left public speech out of curriculum, because “women had no outlet to use these skills” [oh. Silly women.]


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Christine de Pisan wrote The City of Ladies, countered notion of inferiority, [but this was soon proven false.]

Middle Ages: Paintings were fresco [fresca] on plaster, Tempera on wood Renaissance Art



Chiaroscuro: [Not at all like Mr. Carrasco]: Contrast between light/dark to make 3D images Single-point perspective- everything converges to a point at infinity • More realism than in Dark Ages art



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Filippo Brunelleschi- dome at cathedral of Florence High renaissance- Rome replaces Florence as center of art Religious people in Florence do not like new style, but Popes (Julius II) liked “to beautify [bootify?] their city” Late Renaissance/Mannerism- distorted figures and confusing themes reflected growing crisis in Italy High Renaissance Artists





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Leonardo da Vinci- Military engineer, architect, sculptor, scientist, inventor, Mona Lisa Raphael- from Urbino, commissioned for Vatican palaces, images of Jesus and Mary, School of Athens shows Plato + Aristotle [kissing?] in single point perspective Michelangelo- David commissioned by Florence as propaganda work against Milan [maybe it was the genitalia.], Sistine Chapel for Julius II, tomb for Julius II [Splinter- Trainer of the Ninja Turtles]

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Northern Renaissance  Questions concerning religion- study early Christian authors...
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