Colonialism – The active possession of a foreign territory and the maintenance of political domination over that territory Colonies – Territories under the immediate political control of a nation-state Microloan – Small loans to impoverished borrowers
Modernization Theory – Model of development holding that some nations are poor because their societies are traditional. Such nations should achieve wealth by attempting to repeat the historical experience of today’s wealth nations Structural Adjustment – A development policy promotes in Western nations, particularly the United States, that requires poor nations to pursue free market reforms in order to get new loans from the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Neoliberalism – Political and economic policies promoting free trade, individual initiative, and minimal government regulation of the economy and opposing state control or subsidy to industries and all but minimal aid to impoverished individuals Human Needs Approach – Emphasized assuring poor people access to land, improved but simple farming techniques, basic education, access to pure water, basic health and sanitation facilities, and involving people in rural communities in managing and promoting these goals RACE Project – A traveling museum exhibition and website emphasizing race as a cultural construction and the ways in which race is assigned meanings in American culture Sweatshop – Generally a pejorative term for a factor with working conditions that may include low wages, long hours, inadequate ventilation, and physical, mental, or sexual abuse of its workers Diffusion – The spread of culture elements from one culture to another Remittance – Transfer of money from a foreign worker to their home country Migration – Movement from one area to another
Transmigration – Migration to and from once place to another Public Anthropology – Anthropology that aims to communicate with nonanthropological audiences and to have an impact on critical issues of wide social significance Forensic Anthropology – The application of biological anthropology to the identification of skeletalized or badly decomposed human remains Medical Anthropology – A subfield of anthropology that draws upon social, cultural, biological, and linguistic anthropology to better understand those factors that influence health and illness; concerned with the experience, distribution, prevention and treatment of disease Culture – Learned behavior and symbols that allow people to live in reference to their own histories and values rather than the values of another culture Grameen Bank – microfinance organization
Gender – A cultural construction that makes sense of biological and physical differences into socially meaningful categories that seems responsible and appropriate Political Organization – the patterned way, in which power is legitimately used in a society to regulate behavior, maintain social order, make collective decisions, and deal with social disorder Enculturation – The process of learning to be a member of a particular cultural group Religion – A social institution characterized by sacred stories, symbols and symbolism; the proposed existence of immeasurable beings, powers, states, places, and qualities; rituals and means of addressing the supernatural; specific practitioners; and change Rite of Passage – The ritual that moves and individual from one social status to another Liminality – Stage of a ritual, particularly rite of passage, in which one has passed out of an old status but has not, yet entered a new one Fundamentalism – A proclamation of reclaimed authority over a sacred tradition that is to be reinstated as an antidote for a society that is believed to have strayed from its cultural moorings Revitalization Movement – deliberate, organized, conscious effort by members of a society to construct a more satisfying culture. Social movement that attempts to bring people back to an imagined past (Taliban, American...
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