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Ant 102 Study Guide

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Key Terms
Colonialism – The active possession of a foreign territory and the maintenance of political domination over that territory Colonies – Territories under the immediate political control of a nation-state Microloan – Small loans to impoverished borrowers

Modernization Theory – Model of development holding that some nations are poor because their societies are traditional. Such nations should achieve wealth by attempting to repeat the historical experience of today’s wealth nations Structural Adjustment – A development policy promotes in Western nations, particularly the United States, that requires poor nations to pursue free market reforms in order to get new loans from the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Neoliberalism – Political and economic policies promoting free trade, individual initiative, and minimal government regulation of the economy and opposing state control or subsidy to industries and all but minimal aid to impoverished individuals Human Needs Approach – Emphasized assuring poor people access to land, improved but simple farming techniques, basic education, access to pure water, basic health and sanitation facilities, and involving people in rural communities in managing and promoting these goals RACE Project – A traveling museum exhibition and website emphasizing race as a cultural construction and the ways in which race is assigned meanings in American culture Sweatshop – Generally a pejorative term for a factor with working conditions that may include low wages, long hours, inadequate ventilation, and physical, mental, or sexual abuse of its workers Diffusion – The spread of culture elements from one culture to another Remittance – Transfer of money from a foreign worker to their home country Migration – Movement from one area to another

Transmigration – Migration to and from once place to another Public Anthropology – Anthropology that aims to communicate with nonanthropological audiences and to have an impact on...