Ant 101 Final

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ANT 101, Fall 2012
Exam 4 Study Guide

Exam 4 Time and location
Section 1 (10am section): Monday, December 17 @ 12:15pm, Neville 101 Section 2 (11am section): Monday, December 17 @ 9:30am, Neville 101

Textbook: Chapters 14-15. Review all reading assignments, and pay special attention to the list of “key terms” at the end of each chapter.

Additional readings: Zaro and Houk (2012). The growth and decline of the ancient Maya city of La Milpa, Belize. Ancient Mesoamerica 23:143-159.

Videos: (1) Journey into the Ring of Fire: The Incas of Peru. Know the general themes of the video, and particularly any key points we discussed in class.

Lectures: 18-25

Lecture 18—La Milpa: research at an ancient Maya city
Classic Maya: where and when?
What is epigraphy?
General characteristics of Maya cities (plazas, pyramids, palaces, rural population) Evaluating the Ancient Maya City of La Milpa, Belize in absence of hieroglyphic text Importance of studying ‘collapse’ in the archaeological record

Lecture 19—The rise of cities
Civilization and concept of ‘city’
Early Civilizations and the Neolithic
Centers of early civilization (geography)
Definition of city
Demographic vs. Functional definition
Urban functions
Concept of city (functional) among ancient civilizations
Towns and cities in the archaeological record
Çatalhoyük, Turkey
General info (physical description and location)
Storage facilities
Architectural complexity
Neolithic Tells
Chaco Canyon, New Mexico
General info (physical description and location)
Pueblo Bonito
“elite” burials? Central authority?
Road network extending from Chaco
Turquoise production
Teotihuacan, Mexico
General info (physical description and location)
Pyramids; monumental architecture
Political, economic, religious authority
Craft production and economic specialization
Residential pattern: social/economic ‘barrios’ or neighborhoods Street of the Dead
Cities as a process of change in key variables

Lecture 20—Form and Meaning in Ancient Cities
Planned vs. Unplanned
General criteria for planned vs. unplanned in general literature
Organic vs. Orthogonal
Problem: “organic” doesn’t cover the variation in ancient cities
City planners in ancient cities
Coordination among buildings and spaces
Coordinated arrangement of buildings and spaces (evidence/examples?)
Formality and Monumentality (evidence/examples?)
Orthogonal layouts (concept)
Semi-orthogonality
Integrated orthogonality
Modular orthogonality
Access and Visibility (concepts/evidence/examples?)
Standardization among cities (concept and difficulty)
Architectural inventories
Spatial patterns
Degrees of urban planning (how measured?)

Lecture 21—Cities, Ancient and Modern
Comparison of ancient and modern cities
Contemporary focus of urban studies, with potential in archaeology Problems with focusing on modern cities only
Urban Sprawl (concept, contemporary problem, archaeological contributions) Squatter settlements (concept, contemporary problem, arch. contribution) Urban sustainability (concept, contemporary problem, arch. contribution) Directions for archaeologists

Lecture 22—Civilization and Culture Change
Key variables in culture change:
Agricultural innovation
Farming methods (intensification); swidden agriculture and fallow periods, ditched fields, irrigation systems, terracing, fertilizer Diversity of Labor (Economic Specialization)
Food surplus, craft specialists, increased trade and material movement; Non-food producing segment of society Central government
Fortifications, impose order; taxes; city planning, public works Social stratification
Size of dwelling (labor investment);...
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