American Pageant Chapter 1 Study Guide

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Chapter 1 Summary
Millions of years ago, the two American continents became geologically separated from the Eastern Hemisphere land masses where humanity originated. The first people to enter these continents came across a temporary land bridge from Siberia about 35,000 years ago. Spreading across the two continents, they developed a great diversity of societies based largely on corn agriculture and hunting, In North America, their societies were less numerous and urbanized than in South America, though some peoples like the Pueblo and Iroquois developed complex social orders. The impetus for European colonization came from the desire for new trade routes to the East, the spirit and technological discoveries of the Renaissance, and the power of the new European national monarchies. The European encounters with America and Africa, beginning with the Portuguese and Spanish explorers, convulsed the entire world. Biological change, disease, population loss, conquest, slavery, cultural change, and economic expansion were just some of the consequences of the commingling of two ecosystems.

After they conquered and then intermarried with Indians of the great civilizations of South America and Mexico, the Spanish conquistadors expanded northward into the northern border territories of Florida, New Mexico and California. There they established small but permanent settlements in competition with the French and English explorers who were also venturing into North America Identification Chapter 1

1. Extended period when glaciers covered most of the North American continent 2. Staple Crop that formed the economic foundation of Indian civilizations 3. Important Mississippian culture site, near present East St. Louis, Illinois. 4. First European nation to send explorers around the west coast of Africa 5. Flourishing West African kingdom that had its capital and university at Timbuktu 6. Mistaken term that European explorers gave to American lands because of the false belief that they were off the coast of Asia

7. Animal introduced by Europeans that transformed the Indian way of life on the Great Plains 8. Among the major European diseases that devastated Native American populations after 1492 (name two)

9. Disease originating in Americas that was transmitted to Europeans after 1492 10. Treaty that secured Spanish title to lands in Americas by dividing them with Portugal 11. Wealthy capital of the Aztec empire

12. Person of mixed European and Indian ancestry
13. Indian uprising in New Mexico caused by Spanish efforts to suppress Indian religion 14. Indian people of the Rio Grande Valley who were cruelly oppressed by the Spanish conquerors 15. Roman Catholic religious order of friars that organized a chain of missions in California

Chapter 1 MC
1. The geologically oldest mountains in North America are
A. the Appalachians
B. the Rockies
C. the Cascades
D. the Sierra Nevada
2. The Indian peoples of the New World
A. developed no advanced forms of civilization
B. were divided into many diverse culture speaking more than two thousand different languages
C. were all organized into the two large empires of the Incas and the Aztecs D. relied primarily on nomadic herding of domesticated animals for their sustenance 3. The Iroquois Confederacy remained a strong political military influence until A. The Spanish conquest of the Americas

B. The fur trade was wiped out in the early 1700s
C. The French and Indian War
D. The American Revolution
4. Among the important forces that first stimulated European interest in trade and discovery was A, the Christian crusaders who brought back a taste for the silks and spices of Asia B. the Arab slaver traders on the east coast of Africa

C. the Scandinavian sailors who had kept up continuous trade contacts with North America D. the division of Spain into small kingdoms competing for wealth and power 5. Among the most important American Indian products to spread to the Old World were A. animals...
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