1) Reconstruction: A plan to reconstruct the society after the Civil War. This divided the south (except Tennessee) into 5 military districts under the control of the U.S. Army. It was the attempt to reconstruct the south, readmit the southern states back into the Union, and change the life of African Americans. (pg. 414)
2) Freedman’s Bureau: Congress created this in March of 1865 in order to provide help for thousands of poor black and white southerners uprooted by the fighting. They were educated in Freedman Schools, housed, and fed. “Plenty to eat, nothing to do” (pg. 404)
3) Transcontinental Railroad: One of the first railroads built that would cross the whole country. It also helped with the settlement of the west and the development of standard time (time zones). (pg. 463)
4) Andrew Carnegie & Steel & “Gospel of Wealth”:
a) Andrew Carnegie & Steel: He founded his own company in the steel business and used vertical integration (acquiring companies that supplied his business). He sold the company to J.P. Morgan for $480 million. He believed in the “Gospel of Wealth”- Wealthy people had a duty toward the rest of society. (pg. 469)
b) “Gospel of Wealth”: A speech that including giving back to fellow men because of personal wealth.
5) John D. Rockefeller & Oil: Started the oil business in 1863 and started his company Standard Oil. He used vertical integration (acquiring companies that supplied his business). He bought barrel factories, oil fields, oil-storage facilities, pipelines, and railroad cars. This allowed him to keep his costs low and profits high. He also used Horizontal Integration-taking over other companies producing the same product. (pg. 468)
6) Armor & Swift Meatpackers: Armor and Swift owned the two largest meat packaging plants during the cattle boom in Chicago. Armor was the first to can meat and Swift invented the refrigerated boxcar.
7) New Immigrants vs. Old Immigrants: New immigrants came from South and East Europe countries like Italy and Greece. They did not speak English and were Catholics, Jews, and Orthodoxies. Old immigrants came from North and West European countries like England and Ireland a while before the New Immigrants came. They were white, English speaking Protestants.
8) Child Labor Laws: These laws were a Progressive Reform. They tried to curb child labor and promote children getting an education instead of working. Established the Federal Children’s Bureau.
9) Jane Addams: She founded the first settlement house in Chicago called the Hull House in 1889. A settlement house was a place where volunteers provided a variety of services to people in need. (pg. 498)
10) Social Gospel Movement: The “Social Gospel” was the belief that religious faith could be expressed through good works. They believed churches had moral duty to help solve society’s problems. (pg. 498)
11) Sweatshop: A small workshop set up in a tenement rather than in centralized factories such as a close and textile company. (pg. 473)
12) Progressive Reforms: The reforms were housing reforms, election reforms, women’s suffrage, society reforms, workplace reforms, reforms in living conditions, and government reforms.
13) Booker T. Washington: He founded the Tuskegee Institute. He believed that Blacks should accept segregation for the time being and should train in jobs that they can get in agriculture, farming, carpentry, or masonry. This was known as his “Atlanta Compromise”.
14) W.E.B DuBois: He believed in opposing segregation, prejudice, and discrimination immediately and he believed that blacks should aspire to become lawyers and doctors. He helped found the NAACP which fought for African American rights.
15) Jacob Riis: The famous muckraker worked with and became the social voice of the progressive reformers. He was the first newspaper reporter to use a camera and include photography with his articles....