"Forensic Science" Essays and Research Papers

Forensic Science

Forensic Science in the 21st Century DeShelle Edwards AJS/592 March 7, 2013 Frank Battle Abstract The importance of forensic science is continuing the objective to resolve crimes effectively and proficiently to generate eminence outcomes. Forensic science continuously expands on innovative methods and theories within a challenging industry.   Forensic science is critical to the analytical practices, court procedures, and safety measures...

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Forensic Science

Truax March 28, 2005 Forensic Science Forensic scientists solve exiting and puzzling mysteries, which makes the unsolvable crimes solvable. Forensic science started in England in the 1780's. Scientists use microscopes that can magnify things from 1,500 to 250,000 times! This enables them to contribute like none other to the capture of criminals. In order to become a forensic scientist, first you must become a scientist first. The history of forensic science goes back all the way to...

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Forensic Science in the 21st Century

Forensic Science in the 21st Century Gertrude West Forensic Science and Psychological Profiling /CJA590 May 30, 2011 Edward Baker Forensic Science in the 21st Century Forensic science has various influences on crime, investigation and the people that are involved. Forensic science has a connection with the courts to ensure crimes are getting solved and justice is being served to those that commit crimes. With the help of forensic science, crimes are being solved from a human and technological...

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Ethics in Forensic Science

To describe ethics in forensic science, let me first give a definition of ethics. According to Webster’s II New Riverside University Dictionary, ethics is defined as: 1. A principle of right or good behavior. 2. A system of moral principles or values. 3. The study of the general nature of morals and the specific choices an individual makes in relating to others. With that being said, is ethics practiced when it comes to forensic science? I am pretty sure it is in most cases,...

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The Role of Criminal Investigation in Forensic Science

When it comes to investigating crime, no matter the level of severity, nothing is more valuable to a criminal investigator than the use and implementation of forensic science. The results of such forensic investigations can be the difference between acquittal and conviction in a court of law. The single best aid that forensic scientists use is DNA, which has proven to be a powerful tool in the fight against crime. DNA evidence can identify suspects, convict the guilty, and exonerate the innocent...

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Forensic Science Investigating a Crime Scene

Forensic Science Level 3 Assignment 2 Unit 2 Lisa Ashton Unit 2 Task 12 Investigating a crime scene. When investigating a crime scene before touching anything investigators must document and photograph everything, investigate all doors, windows, ect of any evidence of how offender got in and out of the crime scene, investigate every inch of the crime scene for blood, fingerprints, footprints, weapons, bullet holes, shell casings etc. and anything that looks out of place...

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Forensic Investigator

12/12/2014 Forensic Scientist Technician What’s the Job title? A forensic scientist and my hope is to write an essay that can express my passion and love for this career. I hope that it will enlighten you and inform you of what a great career I have chosen for myself. My desire is to think as the great minds in forensic science. I also, want to prove that I will be a potential criminologist. Forensic investigators work on cases involving a person's death...

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Forensic Dentistry

Written communications  Forensic dentistry Forensic dentistry, which sometimes referred to as forensic odontology, is an exciting and dynamic area of dentistry. Forensic dentistry was officially recognized in 1969 with the establishment of the American Society of Forensic Odontology. Where dentistry interacts with the law, while the names are interchangeable, the field of forensic dentistry is commonly recognized by the identification of human remains, but it involves much more, and can also be...

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Forensic Accounting

Dan Stenson Professor Gettys Academic Writing 4/24/12 Importance of Forensic Accounting Business has been around for thousands of years with people buying, selling/ trading food, animals, and jewelry just to meet their own standards of living. Business fraud has been around for just as long as business has. Every person to this day and in the future was and will be looking for ways to save and earn money. The best know earliest case of fraud deals with the whites and Indians in 1626 with...

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Becoming a Forensic Scientist

Becoming a Forensic Scientist The scientific examination of a forensic scientist is to methodically gather and analyze evidence to establish facts that can be presented in a legal proceeding. They help the court to come to a conclusion regarding the criminals and their punishments. The field of study or examination of forensic scientist is very wide, diverse and unpredictable. The duties and responsibilities are very hazardous, onerous and involve risk taking because dangerous things are capable...

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The History of Forensic Science

The History of Forensic Science Law Enforcement has used forensic science for years to help solve puzzling crimes. But not to many people know just how long the art of forensic science has been around. For example evidence of fingerprints were found in paintings and prehistoric rock carvings made by humans. The Chinese have probably used forensics much longer than most civilizations. For example back in the 700's they used fingerprints to find out the identity of documents and clay sculptures....

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Forensic Science

time of death, which one do you think is most effective? Why? Do you think you would like to participate in an autopsy? Why or why not? If you were a forensic anthropologist and were studying human remains, what information would you look for in the bones? Why would this information be helpful? What can the distribution of bones tell a forensic scientist? What do you think would be the most challenging aspect of colImagine that you are at a crime scene. You find skeletal remains, but the skeleton...

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Forensic Entomology

Forensic entomology is using insect biology to determine specific aspects of a crime. It can be used to determine time of death, whether or not a body has been moved, and also if the victim had been intoxicated with any substances. Insects are also prime examples of Locard's principle when solving a crime. The history of forensic entomology dates back to as early as the thirteenth century, and is still been developed today. There have been many cases involving forensic entomology to help solve...

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CONTRIBUTION OF FORENSIC SCIENCE TO CRIME REDUCTION

Contribution of forensic science To crime reduction Name Institution Forensic Science is the use of science and technologies for the purpose of law by providing impartial scientific evidence for use in the court of law. Forensic science is widely used in crime analysis, investigation and conviction. This paper will evaluate how diverse uses of Forensic Science contribute positively to crime detection and reduction rates. Body The development of Forensic Science techniques for...

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Foreinsic Science

of making a perfect crime, such that no one can realize, a hint or way is left behind & with the use of modern techniques an investigator(s) finds out the rest. So, in today's world the improvement & achievement of justice via application of forensic Science with the processes of law is a must thing to have. To know the baseline of an investigation procedure, CSI-"Coming to Rage" was my episode of concern for the FSCI 101 assignment. The Episode mainly focuses on two murder cases. First one is...

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Evaluate the Use of Forensics in Criminal Investigation

------------------------------------------------- Evaluate the use of forensics in criminal investigation Step Up to Higher Education: Module 2 Assignment. Module 2 Assignment. Daniel Henderson Daniel Henderson Table of Contents Introduction Page 1 Bibliography Page 6 The aim of this essay is to discuss and evaluate the use of forensics in criminal investigation. This...

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Forensic Report For Murder

ILLINOIS STATE POLICE Division of Forensic Services Education Forensic Science Laboratory ISP CENTRAL HEADQUARTERS * 400 N Broadway Ave URBANA, Illinois 61820-0 (217) 384-3888 (Voice) * 1-(800) 255-3323 (TDD) Pat Quinn Hiram Grau Governor Director April 18, 2014 LABORATORY REPORT DET. Stabler CHAMPAIGN POLICE DEPARTMENT 82 E UNIVERSITY AVENUE CHAMPAIGN IL 61820...

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System Forensics

1. What is Computer Forensics? System forensics is the process of systematically examining computer media as well as network components, software, and memory for evidence. System forensics involves collecting, preserving, analyzing, and documenting evidence to reconstruct user activities. Appropriately collected evidence is often presented in court to solve criminal cases and prosecute criminals. 2. How has technology improved the way criminal investigators perform their job? Technology improved...

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Case study in Forensics - Ashley Coulston

and how the perpetrator – Coulston, was eventually captured and the evidence that flowed to convict him for the triple murders in Summit Road, Burwood. In this case study I will examine the forensic evidence (limited to the main ballistic evidence), that was presented in the criminal trials and the forensic evidence that was introduced by the prosecution. Background Coulston was caught by police not for the murders in Burwood but for an armed robbery that occurred several months after the...

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Forensic Science

Review Questions 1. What is a comparison microscope? What are the advantages of this microscope? A comparison microscope is a type of microscopes that is commonly used in a forensic laboratory. This microscope combines two microscopes into one unit, allowing the viewer to see what is under each of the lenses at the same time. This is a huge advantage because it allows you to compare evidence with a known sample because the two samples can be examined side by side. 2. What are the three substances...

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Forensic Science Pace Chart T

Forensic Science pace chart (Traditional) Segment One Pace Chart Week 1 Lesson Completion date 01.00 Introduction to Forensic Science 01.01 Do You Suffer From the "CSI effect?" 01.02 Forensic Science 01.03 The History of Forensic Science 01.04 Forensics and the Legal System 01.05 Other Forensic Sciences 01.06 Review and Critical Thinking 01.07 Lab Questions 01.08 Discussion Questions 01.09 Quiz Review 01.10 Introduction to Forensic Science Week 2 ___________ 02.00 The Crime...

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Research Paper on Criminal Justice

8, 2010 English Class The field of Criminal Justice has so many different career paths that anyone can succeed in and it’s for that reason I have picked the Forensic Science path to explore. There are a number of reasons why I have chosen to explore and get an education in this career. The specialization of Forensic Science within the Criminal Justice is right for me because I feel that families should have closure, I feel that people who don’t deserve to be in prison should have a fair...

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Forensic Science

Thinking Questions 1. Why are forensic scientists an important part of drug cases? 2. If you were a forensic scientist and you were called to a crime scene to see if drugs were present, what would you do to determine this? 3. Why is it important for forensic scientists to have as much information as possible about the place where a possible drug substance was found? 4. What are some of the difficulties in identifying particular drugs? Why is it important for forensic scientists to be able to...

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crimiliaitics

1. A basic function of a forensic scientist includes: Furnishing training on the proper collection of physical evidence Analysis of physical evidence Providing expert testimony 2. The first DNA profiling test was developed by ________ in 1982, and it was first used in 1986 to identify the murderers of two young English girls. Sir Alec Jeffries 3. Which discipline does not fall the umbrella of forensic science: Entomology Anthropology Pathology ...

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Chapter 1 OARWET

Overview: Completed Ask: 1) Who is best known for developing the idea of forensic science? 2) What is an expert witness 3) What are some basic services provide by a crime lab? 4) What did Alphonse Bertillon do for forensic science? 5) What is forensic entomology? Read: Completed Write: 1) Many people believe that Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was the first person to understand and apply science for solving crimes. He used his fictional character Sherlock Holmes to test out his...

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Forensic

Although we will be focusing on the forensic sciences that typically take place in a crime laboratory, there are other types of forensic sciences that are specialized and focused on a particular area. In this section, we will briefly take a look at some of these specialty areas. Forensic Pathology/Biology Pathology is a science that deals with disease. Pathologists make use of autopsies to study the tissues and other parts of the human body for diseases. An autopsy is a dissection and examination...

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Interview Questions Winner

I. Interview questions list of Forensic science technician Please click links below for Forensic science technician interview questions & answers. 1. Tell me about yourself? 2. What are your greatest weaknesses? 3. Could you tell me the reason you left your previous job? 4. What experience do you have for forensic science technician? 5. Tell me about a suggestion you have made as forensic science technician? 6. Why do you think you would do well for forensic science technician? 7. What is your expected...

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Bite Mark Analysis

accuracy, as it applies to the field of forensic science referred to forensic odontology or forensic dentistry.   Forensic odontology is the field of forensic science dealing with the recognition of unique attributes present in each individual's dental composition.[1]   This branch of forensics relies heavily on extensive and detailed knowledge of the teeth, jaws, and dental anatomy possessed by a dentist. In addition to this knowledge, the forensic dentist must be well-versed in the interpretations...

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4 Lesson4 Worksheets

Lesson 4 Forensic Dentistry Pre-lesson Reading Forensic Science Forensic science is the scientific examination of evidence in a criminal investigation. Forensic Dentistry or Odontology Forensic dentistry or forensic odontology is a branch of forensic science which deals with the collection, evaluation and proper handling of dental evidence in order to assist law enforcement officers and to assist in civil and criminal proceedings. Major Services of Forensic Dentistry a) Identification of...

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Crime and Technology

Technology • Science has excelled in all forms of life, and helped the human kinds in many ways. • With the advancement of technology punished the criminals in different ways, criminals had found various ways to conduct a crime and human brain is a complex system of strategies, making the criminal more dangerous, but at the same time human had found more ways through which criminals could be caught and punished. Crime and Technology • One such way is called ‘Forensic’, • Forensic is the scientific...

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Individual Work 1

Individual Work 1 What was Francis Henry Galton’s major contribution to forensic science? Galton was not the first contributor to the idea of fingerprinting but he was the first contributor to follow through with making it a successful new way of identification. Alphonse Bertillon came up with a systematic way of identifying persons by taking measurements of different parts of their bodies. This procedure was used for nearly 20 years before being replaced by fingerprinting. There were to other...

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Literary Analysis of “Repeatability and Reproducibility of Earprint Acquisition”

Literary Analysis of “Repeatability and Reproducibility of Earprint Acquisition” In court several different sciences can be used to place a person at the scene of a crime. Recently the recoveries of ear prints at a crime scene have become the basis for several convictions without much research having been done on reliability of such prints and many of these charged persons have been found not guilty after appeals or other evidence has proved their innocence. Some “experts” claim that the uniqueness...

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The Csi Effect

infection,[2] is any of several ways in which the exaggerated portrayal of forensic science on crime television shows such as CSI: Crime Scene Investigation influences public perception. (Wikipedia, n.d.) Anthony E. Zuiker, creator of the CSI franchise, claimed that "all of the science is accurate" on the shows;[10] researchers, however, have described CSI's portrayal of forensic science as "high-tech magic".[11] Forensic scientist Thomas Mauriello estimated that 40 percent of the scientific techniques...

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Blood Splatter Analysis Paper

 Blood Splatter Analysis Criminology – Gregory S. Webb Professor David Geddings Trident Technical College Abstract Blood splatter analysis is an important combination of different forms of forensic science. Using a combination of chemistry, math, physics, and biology blood splatter analysts can predict certain patterns such as: splatter flight characteristics, angles of impact, point and area of convergence, area of origin, and many other patterns that can lead to a very strong and persuasive...

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Scientific Working Groups

Groups in various disciplines as of January 2012. There are five interesting ones that will be discussed. Each of the 24 working groups has scientists working within that specific field. Those scientists are often Federal, state, or local government forensic laboratory scientists, but not all. They are experts in their fields. Facial Identification Scientific Working Group (FISWG) involves “the discipline of image based comparisons of human features”. “The mission of FISWIG is to develop consensus standards...

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What Is Forensic Science

What is Forensic Science? The word forensic comes from the Latin word forensis: public; to the forum or public discussion; argumentative, rhetorical, belonging to debate or discussion. From there it is a small step to the modern definition of forensic as belonging to, used in or suitable to courts of judicature, or to public discussion or debate. Forensic science is science used in public, in a court, or in the justice system. Any science used for the purposes of the law is a forensic science. What...

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Techniques of Maceration

or as if by steeping in fluid”. Maceration is a form of controlled putrefaction done by forensic anthropologist and, occasionally, some medical examiners. Forensic investigators often recover a body too badly decomposed for any use in of an autopsy. Often there is still enough flesh remaining to obscure macroscopically visible evidence, such as cut-marks, making maceration needed. Medical examiners and forensic anthropologist are often faced with the difficulty of removing soft tissue from the human...

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Fingerprints

Question My science fair project is called “Are Fingerprints Inherited?” I will try and determine if fingerprint patterns from biological siblings are inherited however, I will also have control so that I can compare the data. I am interested in finding the results of this because of me having an half brother and sister. I will use a table to take fingerprints and next to each fingerprint is a code so I don’t use names on the same page as the actual prints.Hypothesis My hypothesis is that...

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Unethical Conduct in the Crime Lab

Juan Buitrago Professor Baumann Term Paper April 23, 2013 “If the law has made you a witness, Remain a man of science. You have no victim to avenge, No guilty or innocent person to convict or save -- You must bear testimony within the limits of science.” These are the words from a French Medico legalist, Dr. P.C.H. Brouardel. Anyone well educated in the science field can say that these words pretty much sum up what it is to be ethical and how to act in a laboratory. There are also three important...

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Pan Am Flight 103 Bombing

determined that the clothing was placed around the radio inside of the suitcase. (Wikipedia) During the canvassing for evidence officers came across a piece material that was extremely burned, and because of this excessive charring it was sent to a forensic explosives lab in Kentucky for further analysis. May of 1989 was when the material was examined and different fragments of paper, black plastic, wire mesh, and a green circuit board fragment. All of these items were determined to be pieces of the...

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Pam Fodrill Case Study

investigations, even if its portrayals are not always scientifically accurate. This has caused an interest in the forensic sciences that has led most people to a skewed view of how a criminal investigation actually works. The reality of a criminal investigation is that it is generally more tedious and difficult than the theory of criminal investigation would have you believe. By examining the forensic and investigative procedures of the case of Pamela Foddrill, it is apparent that the theory of criminal investigation...

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Odontology: Dentistry and Bite Marks

Forensic Odontology In cases of mass disasters, fires, murders and many other scenarios the use of forensic Odontology is the key to identification. Without the mastery of forensic dentistry the investigation process and identification of victims and perpetrators would be nearly impossible. Forensic Odontology is the application of the arts and science of dentistry to the legal system. Included in the application of Odontology are the use of dentition, bite mark identification and the analysis...

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Forensic Science Soil and Impressions

03.04 Soil and Impressions Soil For the forensic scientist, soil is more than dirt. Soil is thought of as surface material from the earth, both natural and artificial. In other words, soil includes not only dirt but also rocks, animal material, and vegetation that lie near the surface of the ground. In addition, it may include pieces of glass, fragments of brick or stone, and pieces of asphalt. The combination of things in the soil may help link a suspect to the crime scene if the soil is somehow...

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Forensic science

paint next to the victim, Miller. Foster demonstrated that the prints found in the wet paint matched to Jennings finger prints 4.What is the role of the forensic chemist in crime scene investigation? The role of the forensic chemist in a crime scene investigaton is to analyze all chemicals using a varitey of tests. 5.Who helped pioneer forensic chemistry? Describe one of her famous cases. France McGill helped pioneer forensice chemistry. One of her famous case was the one involving an old coupler...

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Cause and Effect

Sherlock Holmes Influencing Modern Science [pic] Sherlock Holmes was a fictional detective created by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. Sherlock Holmes was a London detective who was famous for his master disguises and his intellectual ability to solve difficult crime cases. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle gave Sherlock Holmes many different ways to solve crimes such as fingerprinting, ballistics and handwriting analysis in order to determine the identity of the suspect. In the early 1900’s, solving a crime...

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Informative Paper on the Green River Killer

Some technology advances are in the field of forensic science the study of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and how DNA analysis can tell from what substance(s) a person died from and can link a victim to a killer or a killer to a victim. Also advancement in the Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) allowed the comparison of thousands of 10-print fingerprints in the system in less than 30 minutes. Another advancement would be in the Forensic Entomology and how insects can help determine...

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forensics

protective clothing which are used to reduce the risk of bringing materials from other locations to the scene of the crime. 2.2.1 Locard's exchange principle. In forensic science, Locard's principle holds that the perpetrator of a crime will bring something into the crime scene and leave with something from it, and that both can be used as forensic evidence 2.2.2 When a person is arrested, is not just standing in front of the judge and being convicted, there should be evidence against the accused as...

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Internal Assessment Blood Splatter Patterns

 Introduction: Bloodstain spatter pattern analysis is one of several specialities in forensic science. The analysis of the blood droplets upon contact with a surface is used to create a three dimensional space symbolizing the area of convergence of all the stains, this method is used to find the source of the blood. The source of the blood helps forensic analysts to understand the crime scene better and thus have an understanding of where the incident took place. A blood...

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us history

 Name: Chapter Review Hour: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Pages 13 - 14 Chapter Review – Observation Skills True or False: If false, correct so that it is a true statement. _____ 1. The word forensic refers to the application of scientific knowledge to legal questions. _____ 2. Good observation skills come naturally to investigators; they do not need to be trained. _____ 3. If we remember seeing something happen, we can trust that it happened just as we think it did. _____ 4....

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Interview 1

 Interview Seth Arbour Saint Leo University Intro to Forensic Science/CRJ-545 Dr. Burkard 6/4/2015 Interview I interviewed Maria Riveras, who is a crime scene investigator with the Hillsborough Country Sheriff’s Office. Though she was quite busy the day of our interview, she was very welcoming and informative to be able to assist me with this assignment. Seth Arbour Interviewing Maria Riveras M. Riveras (personal communication, May 27, 2015): Q: What is your name? A: Maria Riveras...

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Narcotic Drugs

narcotic drugs primarily target the functioning of organs used for respiratory usage. Nonetheless, throughout the gist of the composition, there will be a classification of the differences of narcotic drugs in criminal law, a provision of the required forensic evidence needed to obtain a conviction in a drug case, and an explanation of the importance of the analysis of drugs in a criminal case. There are many differences in the classification of narcotic drugs in criminal law. Although all narcotics...

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Select a single evidence type (e.g. DNA, fingerprints, fibres etc) and critically appraise its potential to progress and provide evidential value to both volume and major crime investigation.

individual evidence. DNA can be extracted from blood or other body fluids, semen, hair, and saliva and maybe used to identifying unknown individuals or in establishing a connection between objects or people. To identify an individual through DNA analysis, forensic scientist target 13 DNA regions that are different from one person to another and use the data to create a reflection of this individual’s genome also called DNA profile. This profile can be compared to others’ DNA sample which remains stored in...

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Jobs

Job Title | Description | Skills Required (list at least five skills, three of which are specific skills in the field of criminal justice). | Why are the skills listed needed to succeed in the position? | Forensic Science Technicians | * Walk through and determine what and how evidence should be collected. * Take photographs * Make sketches of the crime scene * Keep notes of observations & findings * Collect physical evidence such as weapons, fingerprints, DNA, bodily fluids *...

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Edmund Locard

in which he earned the degree for in 1902. During his study of medicine he developed a love for science and how it may apply to legal matters. He wrote a thesis on Legal Medicine under the Great King, and eventually wrote over 40 pieces of work, the most famous being his seven part series Treaty of Criminalistics. Mr. Locard soon became a french criminalist known to be a pioneer of forensic science and to be the ‘Sherlock Holmes of France’. Locard worked as an assistant to Alexandre Lacassagne...

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Dna Exonerations

Shayne Dowdell DNA Exonerations Forensics Period 9 1. After more than three decades in prison, a man in Florida was set free Thursday after a DNA test showed he did not kidnap and rape a 9-year-old-boy in 1974. James Bain, 54 was 19 when he was convicted on charges of kidnapping, burglary and strong-arm rape. Now he will be allowed to go home for the first time in 35 years. James Bain was convicted due to the victim picking him out of five photos. Bain kept pursuing DNA tests...

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Sir Francis Galton

are based the fingerprint systems employed today by police forces throughout the world.” D.G. Browne and A. Brock, Fingerprints: Fifty Years of Scientific Crime Detection, 1954 This research paper will discuss the life and career of the renowned forensic scientist Sir Francis Galton, one of the Victorian Age’s most eccentric and prolific scientific minds. This will discuss his early life in Birmingham, England, his formal education in London, his scientific training and discoveries, his enduring...

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Job Exploration

are forensic scientists who work in a lab, where they examine and test the physical evidence collected at a crime scene. Evidence analyzed by a crime laboratory analyst includes DNA, firearms, fibers, toxicology, blood spatter and tool marks. Crime laboratory analysts apply the principles of genetics, biochemistry and molecular biology to their work and use several and to help wrongly accused people. The skills needed for crime lab analyst or DNA analysis is to first have a degree in forensic science...

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Cultural Effect of Sherlock Holmes

pioneer of pediatric medicine and surgery, who taught Doyle while he was at medical school was know to deduce his patients to help diagnose their ailments (Raffensperger). Bell also would help the police, but unlike Holmes, he only helped in analyzing forensic evidence not with the actual casework (Liebow). Holmes first appeared in an issue of Beeton’s Christmas Annual in 1887 (Bloomington). The first story, A Study in Scarlet, was one of only 4 full length novels about Holmes, the rest other 56 Holmes...

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History of Forensic Science

major contribution to forensic science. He was the first person to use fingerprints as groundwork in criminal cases. It was his study of details in prints to compare them with others. He also provided the first workable fingerprint classification system (Unknown, n.d.). The “father of forensic toxicology” is Mathieu Orifila. He was the first great 19th-century advocate of forensic medicine (Unknown, 2012). He worked to make the study of chemicals a routine part of forensics. He is recognized...

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Forensic Odontology

Antonio Santos Abstract Forensic Odontology is a relatively new science that utilizes the dentist’s knowledge to serve the judicial system. Worldwide, dentists qualified in forensic science are giving expert opinion in cases related to human identification, bite-mark analysis, craniofacial trauma and malpractice. Human Identification relies heavily on the quality of dental records. However Forensic Odontologists can still contribute to the identity investigation in the absence of dental record...

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