Czar Nicholas and wife Alexandra
Unprepared for Czar-hood
Peasant Life in Russia
Apartments were about 12 sq. ft.
Basically living in 1700’s conditions
Bloody Sunday: January 22, 1905
Protest from the people
Czar’s men killed 300 men
Forces Czar to make changes
Thought he was sleeping with the Czarina and so people disliked him
Helped Czarevich who was a Hemophiliac
Blood doesn’t easily clot
Trusted by Nicholas and Alexandra implicitly
Shot six times and poisoned with cyanide but survived so was tied up and dumped in a
Revolution and Lenin
Czar abdicated his throne in hopes of his brother Michael stepping up to become Czar but he doesn’t.
Provisional govt. is formed but communists want to take over
Communists march and in 1917 there is a fight and communists take over
Lenin famous for “Peace! Land! Bread!”
Said everyone deserved something.
Lenin became leader of Russia and forced change upon Whites (non-communists)
Classless society was the goal of Lenin
Lenin dies and Joseph Stalin becomes leader.
Goal: To make USSR into a modern industrial power with all production under govt. power.
When Joseph Stalin came into power in 1924, the communists controlled much of the old Russian Empire. They called it the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic. The USSR, or Russia, was made up of many republics, or states. Russia was the largest republic and it controlled the others. In 1928 Stalin proposed the first of several “five year plans” that were supposed to help build-up the industry, improve transportation, and increase farm output. In order to achieve so much growth, the Soviet Union developed a command economy, in which government officials made all the basic economic decisions.
Five Year Plan:
High Production Goals (QUOTAS)
Some lives improve, most get worse
Can’t produce as much as capitalism (poor products)
Agriculture: Farmers were forced to give up small farms and move to collectives. The collectives were large farms owned and operated by the peasants as an individual/a group. Many peasants resisted collectivization by killing their animals, destroying tools, and burning crops. In order to defeat them the government took all of their grain and let millions of people starve.
1934: The Great Purge
Stalin begins to fear that rivals are plotting against him and kills off all enemies. Those who died included soldiers, military members and writers. After staging fake trials, many purged party members were either killed or sent to Siberia. It is estimated that at least 4 million people were purged under Stalin’s orders. Stalin not only gained power, but replaced the old military officers with new ones...this will hurt the USSR during the war with Germany 1941.
Russia became one-party dictatorship.
World War Two
After WWI, diplomats worked hard to ensure peace through international cooperation. In the 1920s-30s, Britain, France, and the USA (democratic powers) faced difficult challenges at home and abroad.
Nationalism sparked independence movements
Great Depression ruined economies; widespread suffering. Unemployment skyrocketed
Instability led to rise of dictators
October 1929 Stock market crashed
By 1932 worldwide depression
Rise of Fascism:
a governmental system led by a dictator having complete power,forcibly suppressing opposition and criticism, regimenting all industry, commerce, etc., and emphasizing an aggressive nationalism and often racism.
Italians frustrated with treatment in 1919 (Post WWI)
Benito Mussolini takes advantage of unrest; seizes power in 1922
By 1925, assumes more power as “il Duce” or “The Leader”
Italy becomes first totalitarian state in Europe
Mussolini used the secret police and propaganda, controlled the press, rigged
elections, and limited rival parties to take control of Italian govt. What it is:
A political movement that supports the needs of the nation before the rights of the individual, has a strong government, and uses severe force to control opposition
“The needs of the many bugs; they outweigh the few”- think Starship
Very anti-democratic movement
Glorification of violence, discipline and blind loyalty to the state
Aggressive foreign expansion
Where it falls in the political spectrum:
Left. vs. Right
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
2. Democrat “More liberal”
4. Republican “More conservative”
Lead up to World War Two
Hitler joined Nazi party after WWI.
Lost Presidential election, but became chancellor in 1933
Became President in 1934
The Spanish Civil War
In 1931, the Spanish King was forced to flee and a republic was set up with a constitution. The new government passed liberal reforms including taking Church lands and giving women a right to vote.
Nationalists Leader: Francisco Franco
Loyalists: Communists, supporters of democracy, others who don’t want to change.
European powers took sides and sent weapons for a “dress rehearsal” of WWII
Small market town in Spain destroyed by the Germans in an effort to test planes and weapons
Francisco Franco succeeds in establishing a fascist dictatorship in Spain
German Aggression: The Beginning of World War II
Hoping to avoid a major war, the western democracies adopted a policy called “appeasement”, where one side gives in to an aggressor. In 1938 there was an Anschluss, or the Unification of Germany. Hitler completes the union of Germany and Austria
Munich Conference: British and French leaders give in to Hitler’s demands for portions of Czechoslovakia.
British PM Neville Chamberlain announces that the leaders gained “peace in our time”
March: Hitler annexes (adds) the rest of Czechoslovakia by invasion
West still unwilling to fight and hesitate to form alliance with USSR
August: Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
They will not fight if other goes to war
Will divide Poland and E. Europe together
September: Polish people discover their lines are being attacked
The Germans will invade with “lightning speed” which is known as Blitzkreig. Tanks, motorized infantry, and airplanes will quickly attack a nation before it can easily mobilize and defend itself. By the middle of Sept the USSR will advance into Poland from the east, and by the end of the month the Poles will surrender.
Sept. 3: Britain and France will declare war although there is no major fighting until April,1940. This period is known as the phony war.
German Luftwaffe bombs coast, cities, and industrial sites daily
(RAF) Royal Air Force saves nation
London bombing known as "The Blitz". Churchill's speeches convince citizens to defiantly continue daily lives.
At first the Axis Powers enjoyed a string of unbroken victories in Europe, Asia, and Northern Africa. The Germans began continuous bombing of Great Britan. The goal was to force a surrender or prepare for an invasion of the island. Operation Barbarossa:
June 1941 Hitler invaded USSR 2.5mil lost.
Major destruction and casulties on both sides
Nazis move deeper into USSR, not prepared for winter fighting
Leningrad: seige for 2.5 years
Stalin urges Britan to open a 2nd front in Europe to ease pressure In 1941:
British Prime Minister and President Roosevelt meet to discuss common goals
Declare they will fight to "ensure life, liberty, independence and religious freedom, and the freedom to preserve the rights of man and justice."
After war leads ideas serve as foundation of United Nation's Principles USA enters WWII on Dec. 7, 1941. Pearl Harbor, Hawaii
Japan frustrated with USA; we limit scale of war materials and oppose aggressive actions
Surprise attack at US naval base
Heavily damaged, but did not destroy US fleet
Turning Points: Africa, Italy, and Soviet Union:
Africa: Germans under Desert Fox had most of North Africa. British general Montgomery stopped attack of suez canal. Held them off.
Italy: Later in the year, allies invade Italy; frustrated Italians sign peace treaty but Nazis fight to keep Italy.
Soviet Union: Nazis in USSR: get stuck in bitter fight over Stalingrad, forced to surrender. D-Day:
June 6. 1944
Allied invasion of France called Operation Overlord (Normandy, France)
Allied forces decided to invade a place called Normandy Beach, Normandy.
Commanded by American General Eisenhower
Landed on five different beach Locations. Utah, Omaha, Gold, Juno, and Sword.
Dropped thousands of paratroopers on Germans night before the landing.