research methodology

Topics: Scientific method, Research, Sampling Pages: 12 (2845 words) Published: June 25, 2014

Academic Writing Skills (Research Methodology)
Year 3, Semester 2
Facilitator: Prof. Chhim Puthea, BA (TEFL), MA (Edu)
Hint for Mid Term Exam
Choose the correct one of alternative
1. Scientific explanations are based on objective and systematic observations carried out under carefully controlled conditions. This quality makes scientific explanations … A)rational.
B)parsimonious.
C)empirical.
D)general.
2. Explanations that are simple and based on the limited information available from a situation observed are … A)pseudoexplanations.
B)circular explanations.
C)commonsense explanations.
D)authoritative explanations.
3. Scientific explanations differ from nonscientific explanations in that scientific explanations are… A)less general.
B)subjected to rigorous research scrutiny.
C)more likely to be based on hearsay and anecdotal evidence. D)both a and b
4. The scientific method of inquiry differs from other methods of inquiry in that the scientific method. A)requires that hypotheses be tested empirically.
B)is limited to experimental research.
C)does not require revision and retesting of hypotheses that are not fully supported. D)all of the above.
5. Any characteristic or quantity that can take on several different values is a … A)variable.
B)constant.
C)hypothetical value.
D)none of the above.
6. A hypothesis is …
A)a statement of the actual relationship between variables. B)a tentative statement about the relationship between variables. C)tested only if it is not supported using the method of authority or rational method. D)none of the above

7. The point where the scientific method differs from the other methods of inquiry is … A)initial observation of a phenomenon under real-world conditions. B)formulation of tentative explanations for observed phenomena C)further observing and experimenting on an observed phenomenon. D)refining and retesting tentative explanations.

8. Research that is conducted to test a purely theoretical issue is termed … A)applied research.
B)laboratory research.
C)basic research.
D)fundamental research.
9. The first step in the research process is …
A)choosing a research design.
B)deciding which statistics you want to use to analyze your data. C)lining up participants for your study.
D)developing a research idea and hypothesis.
10. Hypothesis development involves deductive reasoning, which is deriving … A)general laws from specific instances.
B)general hypotheses from specific theories.
C)specific hypotheses from specific ideas.
D)specific hypotheses from general ideas.
11. The three broad categories of research ideas are …
A)experience, deduction, and theory.
B)theory, models, and application.
C)experience, theory, and application.
D)experience, theory, and models.
12. A valuable source of systematic observation is …
A)informal observations of family members.
B)your personal experiences.
C)published research reports.
D)the anecdotes of a friend.
13. A set of assumptions about the causes for behavior and the rules that specify how the causes operate is your text’s definition for a(n) … A)model
B)hypothesis
C)application
D)theory
14. Theories are usually more __________ than hypotheses.
A)complex
B)simple
C)testable
D)lawful
15. A theory that specifies the variables and constants with which it works numerically is termed… A)quantitative.
B)qualitative.
C)analogical.
D)fundamental.
16. Theories differ in …
A)whether they are quantitative or qualitative.
B)level of description.
C)domain or scope.
D)all of the above
17. The role of theory in science is to …
A)provide understanding....
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