1 project is defined as a collaborative enterprise, involving research or design, that is carefully planned to achieve a particular aim. Projects can be further defined as temporary rather than permanent social systems or work systems that are constituted by teams within or across organizations to accomplish particular tasksunder time constraints.
Administrative: Administrative projects involve intellectual workers. The scope may change as the project proceeds.
Construction: Construction is a contract business where the scope is laid out in detail before the project starts and the level of risk is relatively small for the size of investment. The workers are almost entirely craft or blue collar. In most cases time pressures are moderate and cost is a very important variable. The processes of construction are typically well known and the foremen very experienced.
Computer Software Development: Software projects are notorious for having the scope change radically during the project. Often they are pushing the state of the art which introduces high risk. Programmers are famous for individualistic behavior.
Design of Plans: The design of any kind of plan is an intellectual endeavor. By the nature of the exploratory nature of design the scope may not be well defined at the beginning because the client may not have yet decided just what they want. Quality is of a higher priority than either time or cost.
Equipment or System Installation: Scope is well defined and speed is essential. Risk should be low if the project was well planned.
Event: This is a one of a kind project where scope may change during the project and uncertainty is high. Time is critical to meet a specific date. It is probably a complex project.
Maintenance of Process Industries: Turnarounds and outages are short perhaps nine week projects in which down time can cost as much as a million dollars per day and speed is critical. Uncertainty is high because the scope is not fully known until the plant is disassembled. A large number of different craft workers are involved. They often work three shifts per day and plans are detailed in hours.
New Product Development: Developing a new product is a risky business. By definition you are pushing the state of the art. Time to market is much more important than cost of the project. Quality is also critical and the scope may change up or down during the project.
Research: Research projects are usually long term where quality takes precedence over time. It is an intellectual process where scope may not be defined at all in the beginning. 3 Time – This refers to the actual time required to produce a deliverable. Which in this case, would be the end result of the project. Naturally, the amount of time required to produce the deliverable will be directly related to the amount of requirements that are part of the end result (scope) along with the amount of resources allocated to the project (cost). Cost – This is the estimation of the amount of money that will be required to complete the project. Cost itself encompasses various things, such as: resources, labor rates for contractors, risk estimates, bills of materials, et cetera. All aspects of the project that have a monetary component are made part of the overall cost structure. Scope – These are the functional elements that, when completed, make up the end deliverable for the project. The scope itself is generally identified up front so as to give the project the best chance of success. (Although scope can potentially change during the project life-cycle, a concept known as ‘scope creep’) Note that the common success measure for the scope aspect of a project is its inherent quality upon delivery.
4 Project management is the process and activity of planning, organizing, motivating, and controlling resources, procedures and protocols to achieve specific goals in scientific or daily problems.
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