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Prenatal Development

By krissiateddy Jul 13, 2013 572 Words
Prenatal Development
References: Santrock (2009). Child Development Berk (2008). Infants, Children, and Adolescents

Pregnancy Signs and Symptoms
• • • • • • • • • Spotting or Implantation bleeding Delay in menstruation Swollen/tender breasts Fatigue/tiredness Nausea/Morning sickness Backaches and headaches Frequent Urination Darkening of Areolas Food craving or food aversion

The Course of Prenatal Development
• Divided into 3 periods:
The Germinal Period The Embryonic Period The Fetal Period

• The Germinal Period
– Takes place 2 weeks after conception – Includes the:
• creation of fertilized egg, called a zygote, • cell division, • and the attachment of the zygote to the uterine wall.

• The Embryonic Stage
– 2-8 weeks after conception – Cell differentiation, organs begin to appear – Begins when blastocyst attaches to the uterine wall (now called embryo). – Life support systems develop (amniotic sac/amnion, umbilical cord, placenta) – Organogenesis (process of organ formation during the first two months)

• The Fetal Period
– Two months after conception and lasts for seven months – Growth and development continue their dramatic course during this time – 7 months: “age of viability” of the fetus

Trimesters of Prenatal Development
• First Trimester (first three months) • Second Trimester (middle three months) • Third Trimester (last three months)

Hazards to Prenatal Development
• TERATOGENS: any environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period. Depends on the: – Dose – Genetic Susceptibility – Time of Exposure to Teratogens

• Key Teratogens
– Prescription and NonPrescription Drugs
• Thalidomide (sedative) • Accutane

– Psychoactive Drugs (Caffeine, Alcohol, Nicotine, Cocaine, Marijuana, Heroin) • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

Hazards…
• INCOMPATIBLE BLOOD TYPES
– Rh Incompatibility – Mental retardation, miscarriages, infant death

• ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS
– Radiation and Pollution – Underdeveloped brains, physical deformities

• MATERNAL DISEASES
– Rubella, Syphilis, AIDS – Damage to organs

Hazards…
• MATERNAL DIET AND NUTRITION
– Increase in caloric intake – Folic acid prevents abnormalities in neural tube – Calcium prevent high blood pressure and premature births

• MATERNAL AGE and PREVIOUS BIRTHS
– Adolescents and women beyond 30s

• EMOTIONAL STATE AND STRESS
– Higher rate of miscarriage, low birth weight, etc. – Blood flow to the uterus is decreased

Methods of Childbirth
• Natural of Prepared Childbirth
– Designed to reduce pain and medical intervention

• Cesarian Delivery • Delivery with Medication
– Analgesia: used to relieve pain – Anesthesia: block sensation in an area or block consciousness – Oxytocics: stimulates contractions

Assessing the Newborn
• Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale
– Performed 24 to 36 hours after birth – Assesses neurological development, reflexes, and reactions to people

• APGAR Scale
– Evaluates infant’s hear rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, body color, reflex irritability

Reflexes
• Neonatal reflexes or primitive reflexes are the inborn behavioral patterns that develop during uterine life. • Essential for a newborn's survival immediately after birth. Reflexes are not learned; they are involuntary and necessary for survival.

• • • • • • • • •

Eye blink reflex Rooting reflex Sucking reflex Swimming reflex Moro reflex Palmar grasp Tonic neck reflex Stepping reflex Babinski reflex

The Importance of Prenatal Care
• Why do you think prenatal care is important? • What are the different ways/means of caring for the pregnant woman and the child in her womb?

INTERVIEW WITH A PREGNANT WOMAN
– Age, Occupation, Spouse’s Age (if present), Months Pregnant, No of Child/ren, Place of Residence, etc. – What are your experiences with pregnancy? How do you feel about being pregnant? – What changes happened when you became pregnant (moods, diet, routine, job, etc.)? – Are there issues and concerns (e.g. health) regarding your pregnancy? – How do you (and the family) prepare for your baby’s delivery? How often do you do check-ups? What specific supplements are you taking? – Do you have plans once your baby is born? (child-care arrangments, job, breastfeeding, etc.) What are these?

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