AP Bio 2012 Q1

Topics: Developmental biology, Stem cell, Cellular differentiation Pages: 11 (1445 words) Published: May 4, 2014
AP® BIOLOGY
2012 SCORING GUIDELINES
Question 1
Note: At least 1 point must be earned from each of parts (a), (b), (c), and (d) in order to earn a maximum score of 10.
The ability to reproduce is a characteristic of life.
(a) Describe the process of embryological development in a typical vertebrate embryo, beginning with a fertilized egg and ending with the development of three tissue layers. (4 points maximum)
Embryological process
Fertilization

Cleavage
(can occur in other stages)

Blastulation

Gastrulation

Description of embryological process (1 point per box)
• Egg is fertilized by sperm.
• Zygote is formed.
• Polyspermy is blocked.
• Diploid number of chromosomes is restored.
• Nuclei of egg and sperm fuse.
• Sex of offspring is determined.
• Polarity is determined.
• Rapid cell divisions.
• Cell divisions without cell growth.
• Cleavage divisions form a small, solid ball of cells (morula). • Rapid DNA replications and mitotic divisions occur.
• Cells get smaller in early cleavage with each division.
• Cleavage divisions form a hollow ball of cells surrounding a fluidfilled cavity. • Room for germ layers is developed.
• Germ cell layers (ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm) are
established.
• Opening called a blastopore forms.
• Cells near the surface of the blastula reorganize and move to an interior location.
• Primitive digestive gut (archenteron) forms.

(b) Identify the developmental origin of TWO of the following tissues in vertebrates: • central nervous system
• digestive system
• muscle
(2 points maximum)
Tissue
Central nervous system
Digestive system
Muscle

Identification of developmental origin (1 point per box)
• Ectoderm / outer germ layer
• Endoderm / inner germ layer (lining)
• Mesoderm / middle germ layer (other layers of digestive tract) • Mesoderm / middle germ layer

© 2012 The College Board.
Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org

AP® BIOLOGY
2012 SCORING GUIDELINES
Question 1 (continued)
(c) Identify and explain THREE differences between the embryological development of protostomes and the embryological development of deuterostomes.
(3 points maximum)
Developmental differences:
protostomes vs. deuterostomes
Pattern of cleavage

Determination of cell fate

Blastopore fate

Coelom formation

Explanation (1 point per box)
• Patterns of cleavage occur along different planes.
• Spiral (diagonal planes in protostomes).
• Radial (parallel/perpendicular in deuterostomes).
• Determination of cell fate occurs in different developmental stages.
• Early determination in protostomes (determinate).
• Late determination in deuterostomes (indeterminate).
• Blastopore fate differs.
• Mouth forms first; anus forms second in protostomes.
• Anus forms first; mouth forms second in deuterostomes.
• Coelom formation from mesoderm occurs by different
processes.
• Coelom forms from splitting of mesoderm in protostomes.
• Coelom forms from outpocketing of mesoderm in
deuterostomes.

(d) Explain TWO unique properties of human embryonic stem cells that distinguish them from other human cell types. Describe a current medical application of human stem cell research. (3 points maximum)

Unique properties

Explanation (1 point per box; 2 points maximum)
• Totipotent: can become any type of cell, tissue, organ, or entire organism.
• Pluripotent: can become many types of cells, tissues, or organs. • Undifferentiated: has the ability to follow any differentiation pathway.
• Unspecialized: can give rise to specialized cell types.
• Infinite reproduction: no restriction on cell types.

© 2012 The College Board.
Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org

AP® BIOLOGY
2012 SCORING GUIDELINES
Question 1 (continued)
Description of a current medical application (1 point maximum) Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, the following: • Repair of brain and spinal tissues.
• Treatment of diseases...
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