Fernando Garzon, Psy.D.
• “Pure Science” I
• Common assumptions
• Journals & the file drawer phenomenon
• “Publish or perish” pressure
• Science politics in theory development
• It is commonly assumed that the scientific method is objective and reliable to reveal truth. • File drawer phenomenon: Journals rarely publish studies that don’t find statistically significant findings. • Is it really the theory that explains the data the best that is adopted? Personality, popularity, & connections play a role • Kuhn, T. (1962). The structure of scientific revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
“Pure Science” II
Cyril Burt and IQ data
National political climate bias
Can some subjects really be explored “objectively”?
Homosexuality, abortion, homeschooling
“Pure Science” III
The sinful nature & the flesh in science
“Pure” & “objective”?
Consider the flesh’s influence on these
Temptations to fudge statistics to get published?
Grudges & vendettas against “opponents”?
Biases that prevent legitimate research exploration of “politically hot” areas? “Pure Science” IV
Theology matters in science
General revelation & special revelation
Human nature & science
Place for authoritative knowledge of Scripture along with other forms Keep science in perspective
Reasoning in Research
Fernando Garzon, Psy.D.
Propositional Logic I
1. Begins with a theory
2. Makes predictions from it.
Bible & forgiveness example
Experiments can build evidence for or against theory
Propositional Logic II
1. Begins with observations
(sometimes from research studies)
2. Develops a general theory
The opposite direction compared to deductive reasoning
The observations can lead to the proposal of a theory.
Medical/psychological research & forgiveness example
Some Key Research Concepts
Construct Definition & Description
Operational definitions in experiments
Construct definitions in Research
Define these constructs:
Is forgiveness only a decision or does it involve a process as well? 2. Prayer
Are there different types of prayer? How do you define them? How one defines constructs directs the following research procedure How one defines ideas, concepts, or traits (constructs) will lead directly to How one designs a research project on them
what types of information are gathered
what types of information are ignored
Operational definitions in Research II
Construct definitions lead to operational definitions
Example: mom’s chocolate cake & research
I love my mom’s recipe!
If I don’t give my wife enough specific information on how to make the cake, I may never eat it again! Example: forgiveness study
Define forgiveness as decision & process
If I define forgiveness as a decision & process,
Then I can operationalize a treatment model to research that incorporates both elements.
Construct—Operational Relationship Diagram
Operational definitions in Research III
Redefine the construct (idea, concept)
In terms of observable activities (operations)
Concrete & Measurable
Anyone can see & repeat
Defines only a limited aspect of the original construct
Leading to construct validity questions
Operational definitions in Research IV
Research studies on forgiveness and prayer
Research studies on forgiveness and prayer have to operationalize these constructs in a way that is observable & measurable Several measures of forgiveness
(See Forgiveness integration material for a list) to facilitate research Several clinical forgiveness models are operationalized
For further interest
These are very helpful and have yielded promising results (See forgiveness module materials for a description of Enright’s model(Enright’s model & Worthington’s)
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