Organizational Behavior – Securing Competitive Advantage By John A. Wagner and John R. Hollenbeck
Chapter One – Organizational Behavior and Competitive Advantage Organizational Behavior (OB) is a field of study aimed at predicting, explaining, understanding, and changing human behavior as it occurs in organizations. Understanding this definition of organizational behavior are three important considerations: 1. Organizational behavior focuses on observable behaviors. However, it also deals with internal actions, such as thinking, perceiving, and deciding, that accompany visible actions. 2. Organizational behavior studies the behavior of people both as individuals and as members of larger social units. 3. Organizational behavior also analyzes the “behavior” of these larger social units – groups and organizations – per se.
Micro organizational behavior is concerned mainly with the behaviors of individuals working alone. Three sub-fields of psychology were the principal contributors to the beginnings of micro organizational behavior. Experimental psychology provided theories of learning, motiviation, perception and stress. Clinical psychology furnished models of personality and human development. Industrial psychology offered theories of employee selection, workplace attitudes, and performance assessment. Meso organizational behavior is a middle ground, bridging the other two sub fields of organizational behavior. It focuses primarily on understanding the behaviors of people working together in teams and groups. It grew out of research in the fields of communication, social psychology, and interactionist sociology, which provided theories on such topics as socialization, leadership, and group dynamics. Macro organizational behavior focuses on understanding the behaviors of entire organizations. The origins can be traced to four principal disciplines. Sociology provided theories of structure, social status, and institutional relations. Political science offered theories of power, conflict, bargaining and control. Anthropology contributed theories of symbolism, cultural influence and comparative analysis. And economics furnished theories of competition and efficiency. 1890-1940: The Scientific Management Perspective
Frederick W. Taylor’s Principles of Scientific Management
1. Assign all responsibility for the organization of work to managers rather than workers 2. Use scientific methods to determine the one best way of performing each task 3. Select the person most suited to each job to perform that job 4. Train the worker to perform the job correctly
5. Monitor work performance to ensure that specified work procedures are followed correctly and that appropriate results are achieved 6. Provide further support by planning work assignments and eliminating work interruptions Frank and Lillian Gilbreth – invented motion study, a procedure in which jobs are reduced to their most basic movements. Henry Gantt – developed a task and bonus wage plan that paid workers a bonus if the completed their work in an assigned amount of time. 1900-1950: The Administrative Principles Perspective
Henri Fayol’s 14 Principles of Management
Division of work – A firm’s work should be divided into specialized, simplified tasks. Matching task demands with workforce skills and abilities will improve productivity. The management of work should be separated from its performance. Authority – Authority is the right to give orders and the responsibility to accept the consequences of using authority. No one should possess one without the other. Discipline – Discipline is performing a task with obedience and dedication. It can be expected only when a firm’s managers and subordinates agree on the specified tasks that subordinates will perform. Unity of command – Each subordinate should receive orders from only one hierarchical superior. Unity of direction – Each group of activities directed toward the same objective should have only one manager and only...
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