Week 1: What is digital media culture?
Digital requires a computer – different type of language, 0s and 1s ICT: information and communication technology
Digitizing consists in translating it into numbers (p.32)
The higher the number of bytes, kilobytes, more
Cyberculture: as a form of utopian society changed through ICT Refers to the Internet as Barlowian cyberspace
Lévy argues that with the spread of the Internet new forms of knowledge and new forms of its distribution emerge, these new forms transform not only the ways we manipulate information, but the society itself Cyberculture is synonymous with this change, it refers to the “set of techniques (material and intellectual), practical habits, attitudes, ways of thinking and values that develop mutually with cyberspace” (Lévy 2000: 15) and embodies “a new form of universality: universality without totality” (ibid: 105). For Lévy this new universality symbolizes the peak of the Enlightenment project of humanity – the humanity of free, empowered subjects oppressed neither by the power of the unity of language and meaning nor by unified and binding forms of social being. Cyberculture proves the fact that we are close to this humanistic paradise, it points to the possibility of “creating a virtual participation on your own self (universality) in a way that is different from the identity of meaning (totality)” (ibid: 107). They explore the cultural processing of computer-mediated information (CMI) Artists are good at seeing the world in a way that we don’t normally see Turn it into strange
Ex. “Camouflage from Face Detection”, CV Dazzle, 2013
For Pierre Lévy the concept “virtual” has at least three meanings: a technical meaning associated with IT, a contemporary meaning and a philosophical meaning. In its philosophical sense, the virtual is that which exists potentially rather than actually. As it is currently employed, i.e. in its contemporary meaning, the word virtual often signifies unreality - reality implying a tangible presence (as in virtual reality). In its technical meaning, related with ICT, virtual means the possibility of generating information based on existing digital data and users instructions. As Lévy says “within digital networks, information is obviously physically present somewhere, on a given medium, but it is also virtually present at each point of the network where it is requested” (Lévy, 2002: 29-32).
Manovich: New Media (information culture)
Digital media is new media (defines everything a part of digital culture) New as opposed to past or older forms of media which are becoming old New media as parallel history of images and the machines which produce them 5 principles of new media present in most new media objects: 1. Numerical representation: new media are “composed of digital code” and thus can be “described using a mathematical function” and can undergo “algorithmic manipulation” (27). Conversion from analog to digital form requires sampling: building a regular pattern of quantified units in space and/or time 2. Modularity: new media objects are object-oriented, composed of parts made up of smaller parts reminiscent of a “fractal structure” (30). The logic of computer programming and the makeup of new media objects reflect this modularity; both are often made from independent parts which retain a measure of autonomy even if embedded in another new media object (media elements – images, sounds, maintain separate identity) 3. Automation: numerical coding and modular structure allow much of the “creation, manipulation, and access” (32) of new media to occur w/o direct human interaction. (Ex. color-correct a photo) 4. Variability: "A new media object is not something fixed once and for all, but something that can exist in different, potentially infinite versions" (36). Manovich lists seven examples of variability common in contemporary new media, and also considers more foundational...
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